Properties of double-layered Ga-doped Al-zinc-oxide/titanium-doped indium–tin-oxide thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering applied for Si-based thin film solar cells
(Color online) (a) Transmittance spectra in the visible region (350–950 nm) with ITIO films at different annealing times. (b) The SEM image of the ITIO films annealed for 30 min. (c) The SEM image of the ITIO films without annealing. (d) Average optical transmittance in the ITIO films vs the GAZO/annealed-ITIO double layered film.
Haze value for the ITIO samples with different annealing times at 350 °C and the GAZO film coated on the ITIO samples without any annealing.
SEM images of the top view of the GAZO/annealed ITIO with an annealing time of (a) 10, (b) 30, and (c) 60 min; (d) the cross-section view of the GAZO/30 min-annealed ITIO deposited onto the glass substrate.
Electrical resistivity of ITIO films grown with different annealing times and the GAZO film deposited onto the ITIO samples without any annealing.
(a) Structure of the p-i-n a-Si:H thin film solar cell, and (b) current-voltage characteristics of the p-i-n a-Si:H solar cells under illumination.
Measured EQE of a single-junction a-Si:H thin film solar cell without annealing for GAZO film deposition onto ITIO samples at different annealing times.
External parameters of a-Si:H thin film solar cells with a double layer of GAZO/annealed-ITIO (10, 30, 60, and 120 min) thin-film.
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