Role of surface intermediates in enhanced, uniform growth rates of TiO2 atomic layer deposition thin films using titanium tetraisopropoxide and ozone
(Color online) Representation of the pressure within the mini-reactor during three different runs using an over-saturating dose of ozone and (a) conventional ALD cycle using a single μpulse of TTIP, (b) 3 μpulses of TTIP “in parallel,” and (c) 3 μpulses of TTIP “in series.” D1 and D2 indicate TTIP and ozone exposures, respectively; P1 indicates purge times separating each half cycle, and P2 indicates a 10 sec delay between μpulses during an “in series” dose.
Plot shows film thickness as a function of ALD cycle number for a single μpulse of TTIP (0.55 μmols) and an over-saturating dose of ozone (1.82 μmols) while the substrate temperature was maintained at 200 °C. Linear regression demonstrates a growth rate of ∼0.65 Å/cycle.
(Color online) Growth rates as a function of the number of TTIP molecules when doses are introduced as a single μpulse, “in parallel” or “in series.” Demonstrates an increase in molecules leads to higher growth rates; however, TTIP doses introduced “in series” have lower growth rates as opposed to their “in parallel” counterparts.
(Color online) Highly uniform films of TiO2 ALD deposited across planar wafers for 250 cycles for three different dosing schemes.
(Color online) Growth rates as a function of TTIP purge time for (a) a single μpulse and (b) 3 μpulse “in parallel” of TTIP.
(Color online) Highly uniform films of TiO2 ALD deposited across planar wafers for different purge times after 3 μpulse of TTIP introduced “in parallel.”
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