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Biaxial texture development in aluminum nitride layers during off-axis sputter deposition
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) XRD 0002 and pole figures of AlN layers deposited from φ = 90° and (a,b) α = 0°, (c,d) α = 45°, and (e,f) α = 84°. The inset in (b) is a plot of the intensity vs ψ at a constant φ = 90°. The circle and square symbols indicate the expected peak positions for grain populations I and II, respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) XRD AlN 0002 peak full-width-at-half-maxima Γψ and Γφ along ψ and φ, respectively, indicating (a) out-of-plane and (b) in-plane grain alignments.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Plan-view and corresponding cross-sectional SEM micrographs of AlN layers deposited from (a,b) α = 0°, (c,d) α = 45°, and (e,f) α = 84°. Samples/micrographs are oriented such that the deposition flux for (c–f) is from the left.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) Column inclination angle β and (b) deposition rate R vs deposition angle α of AlN layers. The dashed and solid lines in (a) correspond to the tangent (Ref. 40) and cosine rules (Ref. 41). The dashed and solid lines in (b) are from data fitting, using a (geometrical) cos α dependence or a cos α dependence plus a constant Ru , which accounts for nondirectional deposition flux, respectively, where .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a) Schematic of crystal habit of AlN faceted by {0001} and planes with fastest growth direction at the corner. (b) Plan-view and (c) side-view of crystal habit, indicating growth rates of facets rf , edge re , {0001} basal plane rb , and resulting corner rc . (d) Top-view of the triangular-pyramid shaped AlN nuclei with the highest growth rate perpendicular to the substrate surface. (e) Nuclei with different in-plane orientations φ = 90°, 270°, 0°, 320° exhibit a large (i,ii) and small (iii,iv) capture cross section for the deposition flux impinging from the left (φ = 90°).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Biaxial texture development in aluminum nitride layers during off-axis sputter deposition