Gallium content in film measured by energy dispersive x-ray analysis vs percentage Ga/(Ga+Zn) ALD cycle fraction at 250 °C. Inset shows the growth rate–dose time for the DEZn and TEGa precursors.
Transmission electron micrograph, plan view bright field images of ZnO:Ga film using TEGa:DEZn cycle ratio of 1:20 at 300 °C.
X-ray diffraction spectra of ZnO:Ga films grown using varying ratios of TEGa:DEZn cycles.
Variation of sheet resistance of ZnO:Ga films as a function of percentage dopant cycles (TEGa/(TEGa + DEZn)).
Carrier concentration and mobilities of varying doping levels in ZnO:Ga films measured by the Hall effect.
UV-visible-IR transmission (upper) of ZnO:Ga films deposited on glass. The inset shows the influence of carrier concentration on the band edge. Reflectivity (lower) shows the effect of carrier concentration on the IR cut-off.
Current density–voltage characteristics of a typical Cd1−xZnxS/CdTe photovoltaic cell on a ZnO:Ga–glass substrate.
ALD growth parameters.
Average of device parameters illuminated under AM1.5. Efficiency (η), short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), series resistance (Rs), and shunt resistance (Rsh).
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