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Influence of inert gases on the reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering process of carbon-nitride thin films
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10.1116/1.4769725
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/1/10.1116/1.4769725
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/1/10.1116/1.4769725

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Target current and target voltage waveforms for HiPIMS processes comparing different inert gases; Ne (Pav = 1800 W, black thin line) and the corresponding Ar process (Pav = 1800 W, gray thin line) as well as Kr (Pav = 1400 W, black bold line) with corresponding Ar process (Pav = 1400 W, gray bold line). The inset presents a magnification of the first 35 μs of I(t) and depicts the delay in the raise of the target current.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a), (b) Target current waveforms for reactive HiPIMS processes comparing different N2 contents in the inert gases; (a) I(t) for discharges carried out at Pav = 1800 W in Ne/N2 (bold lines) and in Ar/N2 (thin lines); (b) I(t) for discharges carried out at Pav = 1400 W in Kr/N2 (bold lines) and in Ar/N2 (thin lines).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a)–(m) Time-averaged IEDFs of the most abundant precursor species recorded for HiPIMS discharges at Pav = 1800 W in Ne and Ne/N2 [(a)–(f)] as well as Ar and Ar/N2 [(g)–(m)] of graphite.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a)–(m) Time-averaged IEDFs of the most abundant precursor species recorded for HiPIMS discharges at Pav = 1400 W in Kr and Kr/N2 [(a)–(f)] as well as Ar and Ar/N2 [(g)–(m)] of graphite.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a), (b) Ion fluxes in dependence of the nitrogen content in the inert gas for (a) Ne and (b) Ar-containing processes extracted from time averaged IEDFs of the corresponding processes.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a), (b) Ion fluxes in dependence of the nitrogen content in the inert gas for (a) Kr and (b) Ar-containing processes extracted from time averaged IEDFs of the corresponding processes.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) (a)–(f) Total ion count rate vs. pulse time (corresponding to the onset of the pulse) for the graphite discharge in (a) Ne, (b) Ne/14%, (c)Ar, (d) Ar/14% N2, (e) Kr, and (f) Kr/14% N2. Each data point represents IEDFs recorded during 1 ms and integrated over the entire energy range.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Deposition rates (Rd) for nonreactive (filled squares) and reactive processes (14% N2, open triangles) as obtained from the ratio of film thickness and deposition time as well as the N nitrogen contents ([N]) of CNx thin films deposited at a substrate temperature of 110 °C in Ne, Ar, and Kr.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) XPS N1s spectra of CNx thin films deposited using reactive HiPIMS and a substrate temperature of 430 °C in Ne, Ar, and Kr containing 14% N2. The peak deconvolution, the N content in the CNx thin films, and the C1/C2 ratios of the corresponding films are indicated.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a)–(c) Cross-sectional HRTEM images with corresponding SAED patterns from CNx thin films deposited by HiPIMS at TS = 430 °C in 14% N2 and different inert gases: (a) 14% N2/Ne, (b) 14% N2/Ar, and (c) 14% N2/Kr. SAED labels in (c) mark the position of ∼1.15 and ∼2.1 Å diffuse rings. The arrow indicates the brightest segment of the ∼3.5 Å ring, which implies a slightly textured graphitic ordering (with preferred orientation of basal planes perpendicular to the substrate). The growth direction in the HRTEM images shows upwards. The films deposited in Ar and Kr have the most pronounced fullerene-like structure.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Collection of process relevant data for C/inert gas/N2-discharges.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Measured ion species together with their mass/charge ratio and TOF correction.

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/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/1/10.1116/1.4769725
2012-12-07
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Influence of inert gases on the reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering process of carbon-nitride thin films
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/1/10.1116/1.4769725
10.1116/1.4769725
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