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Low ion energy RF reactor using an array of plasmas through a grounded grid
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10.1116/1.4790423
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/2/10.1116/1.4790423
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/2/10.1116/1.4790423
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Schematic of (a) the parallel plate reactor and (b) the grid reactor. The ground electrode area is 0.3 m2 and the RF-ground electrode distance is 36 mm in both reactors. In the grid reactor, the grid holes and RF electrode structure are cylindrical.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Photograph of the grounded grid composed of an array of holes with a diameter of several millimeters. The ion bombardment energy in this grid reactor was found to be relatively insensitive to variations of the grid geometry as long as the plasma was present inside the grid holes.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Photograph of a plasma inside the grid reactor seen from below the grid.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Current density as a function of the retarding grid potential, and (b) ion velocity distribution as a function of the ion energy measured with the RFEA in hydrogen at 50 Pa in a parallel plate reactor. The time-averaged plasma potential is 80 V and the maximum ion energy is 66 eV. Current density and ion velocity distribution amplitudes are not corrected for the geometrical transparency and collisional transmission (Ref. 28 ).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Capacitive probe schematics: (1) 2 mm diameter cylindrical probe tip; (2) dielectric centering ring; (3) ceramic cap; (4) voltage follower circuit with JFET (BF862). The probe output is measured by an oscilloscope with a 50 Ω termination. The tip capacitance to the plasma is 0.8 pF.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) Time-averaged emission intensity, and (b) ion density vertical profile in a parallel plate reactor with V. Inset: Lateral profile of ion density 7 mm above the ground electrode.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) (a) Time-averaged emission intensity, and (b) ion density vertical profile in a grid reactor with V. The probe collection area locally perturbs the plasma in confined regions which prevent density measurement in or above the grid holes. The dashed black line in (b) is an extrapolation of the ion density toward the grid hole. Inset: Lateral profile of ion density 7 mm above the ground electrode.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Measured ratio of self-bias voltage ( ) to the RF peak-to-peak voltage ( ) in a parallel plate reactor, and in a grid reactor, as a function of .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) (a) Ion velocity distribution measured with the RFEA in a parallel plate and grid reactor with V for both reactors. , , and are −15 V, 80 V, and 66 eV for the parallel plate reactor and −95 V, 40 V, and 17 eV for the grid reactor, respectively. The amplitude of the ion velocity distribution is not corrected for the geometrical transparency and collisional transmission (Ref. 28 ). (b) as a function of the estimated time-averaged plasma potential assuming capacitive sheaths . The lines in (b) are guides for the eye.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) (a) Vertical profile of emission intensity as a function of time during a RF cycle in a parallel plate reactor. The vertical profiles are aligned with the reactor center. The patterns of emission intensity are labeled I-II (see text). (b) The potential on the RF electrode.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) (a) Vertical profile of emission intensity as a function of time during a RF cycle. The vertical profiles are aligned with the axis center of a grid hole. The patterns of emission intensity are labeled I-II (see text). (b) The potential on the RF electrode.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) RF electrode potential measured by the voltage probe and oscillation of the plasma potential measured by the capacitive probe in (a) the parallel plate reactor and (b) the grid reactor.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Time-averaged plasma potential assuming capacitive sheaths [ , Eq. (1) ], time-averaged plasma potential assuming resistive sheaths [ , Eq. (2) ], and “measured” time-averaged plasma potential [ , Eq. (4) ] as a function of the peak-to-peak voltage in the parallel plate reactor and grid reactor. The lines are guides for the eye.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) (a) Maximum ion bombardment energy in the parallel plate and grid reactors as a function of the “measured” time-averaged plasma potential . The straight line shows the upper limit of the ion bombardment energy in a high frequency plasma (Ref. 42 ). (b) in the parallel plate and grid reactors as a function of the square of the peak-to-peak voltage . is an indicator for the power injected into the reactor. The lines in (a) and (b) are guides for the eye.

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/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/2/10.1116/1.4790423
2013-02-06
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Low ion energy RF reactor using an array of plasmas through a grounded grid
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/2/10.1116/1.4790423
10.1116/1.4790423
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