(Color online) (a) Three-dimensional CBKR in the “2I” configuration; intersecting line widths of 2–10 μm corresponding to contact areas of 4–100 μm2. (b) 3D CBKR device intersection (Au/ITO/Ag).
Plan and edge-view SEMs of (a, b) ITO films prepared on Au contacts using GLAD with deposition angle α = 83°, (c, d) α = 83° ITO film on Au, “capped” with 250 nm graded (α = 83° → 30°) + 100 nm planar Ag, and (e, f) α = 83° ITO “capped” film after etching nondevice areas (i.e., no Au bottom contact).
(Color online) (a) Surface void fraction of uncapped films (triangles); reducing with increasing thickness of Ag cap (circles); 250 nm Ag cap + 100 nm planar Ag (squares), (b) increasing top-contact resistivity and surface void fraction with increasing etch time in nondevice areas, etch times longer than 25 s resulted in device failure.
(a) Edge-view SEM of active region and (b) sample I–V curve for completed CBKR device (∼83 μm2 α = 83° ITO).
(a) Edge view and (b) plan view of defect region resembling dense-bulk film resulting from step-height differential between the Si substrate and the Au contact.
Device resistance as a function of device area. The solid line is a best fit to devices above 7.5 μm2 showing the expected scaling. The dashed line is a best fit described in the text, including the effect of the defect region. The fit shows device resistance scales approximately with below 25 μm2 and above 25 μm2.
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