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Atomically resolved force microscopy
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10.1116/1.4803094
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4803094
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4803094
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) History of AFM displaying the path toward high resolution and high performance. (a) (Static) contact AFM, (b) tapping AFM, (c) noncontact AFM, and (d) near-contact AFM.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Schematic view of chemical force as a function of tip–sample distance. Insets show models of tip and surface arrangements in (a) noncontact AFM and (b) near-contact AFM under strong attractive chemical force.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Topographic noncontact AFM images of the pure phase at RT. The image sizes are (a) 200 × 200 Å and (b) 80 × 80 Å (Ref. ). (c) Histogram of the relative height distribution of all the Sn and Si adatoms imaged in (b) (Ref. ). Reprinted with permission from Sugimoto , e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotechnol. , 376 (2006). © 2006 The Surface Science Society of Japan.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Schematic models of (a), (c), (e) typical atom arrangements in the surface, and (b), (d), (f) corresponding side views around the center adatoms. (a), (b) Before electron transfer, (c), (d) after electron transfer from the center Si adatom to the surrounding Sn adatoms, and (e), (f) after electron transfer from the surrounding Si adatoms to the center Sn adatom. (g) Schematic side view of the interacting AFM tip atom and sample surface atom, and (h) schematic model of the splitting of the interacting tip atom DB state and sample surface DB state into bonding and antibonding states.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a) Topographic noncontact AFM images of the mosaic phase at RT; 80 × 80 Å. (b) Histogram of the relative height distribution of all the Sn and Si adatoms imaged in (a). (c) Line profile along the white line in (a) showing the existence of a dependence of the Si adatoms height on the number of nearest neighbor Sn adatoms. (d) Relative height dependence of the Si adatoms (open circles) and Sn adatoms (closed circles) on the number of nearest neighbor Sn adatoms in the surface at RT (Ref. ).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) History of atom manipulation methods achieved using near-contact AFM. (a) Vertical atom manipulation using the mechanical vertical contact (vertical indentation) at LT, (b) lateral atom manipulation using the raster scan at LT, (c) lateral atom-interchange manipulation using the repeated modified vector scan and embedded atom letters created at RT, (d) vertical atom-interchange manipulation using the vertical indentation (advanced interchangeable single-atom pen at RT) and embedded atom letters created at RT.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) (a) Topographic noncontact AFM image at RT; 85 × 85 Å (Ref. ). (b) Δ curves obtained from the average of a hundred equivalent Δ curves measured over the Si and Sn adatoms indicated in (a) using the atom-tracking technique (Ref. ). (c) Short-range (vertical) force curves [] converted from the Δ curves shown in (b) (Ref. ). (d) Short-range potential curves [] converted from the curves shown in (c).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) (a) Two-dimensional vertical force map [] converted from the Δ map on a Si(111)7 × 7 surface at RT. (b) Two-dimensional potential map [] converted from the in (a). (c) Two-dimensional lateral force map [] converted from the in (b). (d) Topographic line profiles under constant Δ (black), (red), and (blue) obtained from Δ, and maps at RT, respectively (Ref. ). Each set point is chosen such that the three curves meet on top of the adatoms.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) (a) Relative height distribution of the atoms in a Pb, Sn and Si intermixed ternary alloy surface at RT, showing that Pb and Sn atoms with few nearest-neighbor Si atoms are indistinguishable in topography (Ref. ). (b) Atom-by-atom total force curves of the intermixed Pb, Sn, and Si atoms at RT, and (c) distribution of maximum attractive total force measured from (b) (Ref. ). Using the ratio of maximum attractive total forces independently determined for Sn/Si and Pb/Si, each of the three groups of forces can be attributed to those measured over Sn, Pb, and Si atoms. (d) Two-dimensional Δ map acquired on a Pb, Sn, and Si intermixed ternary alloy surface at RT showing elemental mapping. Difference in color tone directly indicates the difference of the covalent bond strength and, hence, represents an atom fingerprint.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Simultaneously measured and tunneling current curves converted from each average of 10 curves of Δ and time-averaged tunneling current 〈〉, respectively, at RT above a center Si adatom in the faulted half of a Si(111)7×7 surface (Ref. ).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) (a) Sequential topographic noncontact AFM images at 79 K [1] initially, [2] after the 1st, [3] after the 2nd, and [4] after the 3rd mechanical vertical contact (vertical indentation) on a Ge(111)-c(2×8) surface; 36 Å × 36 Å (Ref. ). (b) [1]–[4] Sequential topographic noncontact (blue arrow regions, Δ = −28 Hz) and near-contact (red arrow regions, Δ = −31 Hz) AFM images of a single atom adsorbed on top of a Ge(111)-c(2×8) surface at 80 K (Ref. ). At the fast scan line indicated by the white dotted line, the near-contact regime was changed to a noncontact one by increasing the tip–sample distance by about 0.06 Å. [5] Topographic noncontact AFM image of a single atom adsorbed on top of a Ge(111)-c(2×8) surface, and [6] topographic near-contact AFM image at 78 K; 88 Å × 88 Å (Ref. ). Reprinted with permission from Oyabu , e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotechnol. , 1 (2006). © 2006 The Surface Science Society of Japan.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Schematic models of (a) tip-enhanced thermal diffusion by lowering the thermal diffusion energy barrier height through the tip–sample interaction force, and (b) repeated modified vector scan enabling stable, reproducible, one-way and directional lateral atom manipulation even at RT.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Vacancy-mediated lateral atom manipulations using repeated modified vector scans on a Si(111)7×7 surface at RT. (a) Sequential topographic noncontact AFM images before and after successive lateral atom manipulations, [1] (or [3]) from a center (Ce) adatom site, [2] through a middle quasistable (M) site, [3] (or [1]) to an adjacent Ce-adatom site (Ref. ). (b) [1]–[5] Typical topographic line profiles under the near-contact regime from a left corner (Co) adatom site through a center (Ce) adatom site to a right Co-adatom site. [6] A ball-and-stick model of an initial Si(111)7×7 half-unit cell with a vacancy at a Ce-adatom site.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Lateral atom-interchange manipulations using repeated modified vector scans on a Ge(111)-c(2×8) surface at RT. (a) [1]–[6] Selected sequential topographic noncontact AFM images before and after successive lateral atom-interchange manipulations aiming to construct the embedded atom letters "Sn"; 77 Å × 77 Å (Ref. ). White arrows show the same substitutional Sn adatom. (b) Typical line profiles under the near-contact regime [1] before, [2] during, and [3] after lateral atom-interchange manipulations. The dotted blue lines in [2] and [3] show the line profile [1] as a guide. Reprinted with permission from Sugimoto , e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotechnol. , 376 (2006). © 2006 The Surface Science Society of Japan.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) Vertical atom-interchange manipulations using vertical indentations on a surface at RT. (a) Typical approach and retraction Δ curves for [1] no deposition (normal tip with no hysteresis) (Ref. ), [2] Sn deposition (Si pick-up), and [3] Si deposition (Sn pick-up). (b) [1]–[8] Selected sequential topographic noncontact AFM images before and after successive vertical ([8] after lateral) atom-interchange manipulations aiming to construct the embedded atom letters “Si”; 47 Å × 47 Å. Green arrows show the latest substituted Si adatoms.

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/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4803094
2013-05-01
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Atomically resolved force microscopy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4803094
10.1116/1.4803094
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