(Color online) Illustration of various structures for which modification of semiconductor surfaces plays an important role. The “static” applications include modifying the interface between a semiconductor and a second material; chemically altering the surface of a bulk semiconductor; and chemically functionalizing a nanostructure. The “dynamic” surface responds to an external stimulus. In the example shown, the surface converts into one for which adsorption of a biomolecule becomes favored in one of the dynamic states.
(Color online) STM image of intersecting Bi nanowires and styrene chains formed on the H-terminated Si(100) surface by hydrosilylation chemistry and Bi self-assembly. Figure reprinted with permission from Wang andHersam, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 12896 (2008) (table of contents image). © 2008, American Chemical Society.
(Color online) Mechanistic hypothesis that initiated study of enynes for monolayers on H-Si(111). Reprinted with permission from Rijksen et al., Langmuir 28, 6577 (2012). © 2012, American Chemical Society.
(Color online) X–Ge ordinary covalent bond energies and dative bond energies for X=O, S, Se, calculated with density functional theory for Group VI elements. Computational details are described in Ref. 40 .
(Color online) (a) Schematic description of the simulation process for formation of linear nanopatterns upon adsorption of methanol and ethylene on Ge(100)-2×1. (b) and (d) Experimental STM images of Ge(100) (16 × 16 nm2) with (b) 0.34 ML methanol (where dark = adsorbate), and (d)0.53 ML ethylene (where bright = adsorbate) (Refs. 45 and 46 ). (c) and (e) Simulated adsorption patterns on Ge(100) (16 × 16 nm2) of (c) 0.3 ML methanol, and (e) 0.5 ML ethylene (where white spot = adsorbate-occupied dimer) (Ref. 47 ). One monolayer (ML) = 1 molecule per dimer. Reprinted with permission from Bae et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 15013 (2007). Copyright 2007, American Chemical Society. Kim et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 3256 (2004). Copyright 2004, American Chemical Society. Shong and Bent, J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 949 (2013). Copyright 2013, American Chemical Society.
Cross-sectional TEM image of TiO2 taken after 100 ALD cycles at 300 °C on initially Br-terminated Ge(100) surface, as described in Ref. 61 .
(Color online) Schematic view of an ideal cycle during film growth by atomic layer deposition, ALD. The substrate is successively exposed to NH3 and a titanium-containing compound, TiL4. In particular, when the ligand L is N(CH3)2, the scheme shows an ALD cycle using TDMAT as metalorganic precursor. Figure based on a scheme in Ref. 16 .
(Color online) Cross-sectional TEM micrographs of a TiNC film before (a) and after (b) NH3 postannealing. The TiNC film in (a) is composed of crystalline nanostructures embedded into an amorphous matrix deposited onto a single crystalline silicon substrate. Upon NH3 postannealing to produce TiN layer in (b), the top layers of the film were mostly polycrystalline and the inner portion of the film above the single crystal silicon remained amorphous. Exposure to ethylene reversed the chemical composition and reactivity of the surface of the film to that of initially deposited TiCN. Figure reprinted with permission from Rodríguez-Reyes et al., Chem. Mater. 21, 5163 (2009) (table of contents image). © 2009, American Chemical Society.
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