(Color online) Historical timeline of important developments in studies of charge transfer processes between plasmas and liquids systems.
(Color online) Typical experimental configurations and corresponding characteristic current–voltage (I-V) curves for GDE, (a) and (b), respectively, and CGDE, (c) and (d), respectively.
(Color online) Comparison of charge-transfer processes at solid–liquid and plasma–liquid interfaces. Both cathodic and anodic charge transfer, defined by the direction of current flow, are shown.
(Color online) Schematic diagram of stepwise mechanism for reduction of metal ions and nucleation of nanoparticles at a plasma–liquid interface. The reduction is assumed to occur directly by plasma electrons.
(a) TEM image and (b) histogram of the size distribution of Pt nanoparticles synthesized by hydrogen plasma reduction of aqueous H2PtCl6. No stabilizer was used to prevent agglomeration or control the particle size. Adapted with permission from Ref. 26 . Copyright 2005, Royal Society of Chemistry.
Time-dependent absorbance intensity of the SPR peak for (a) Ag nanoparticles synthesized from an Ag foil anode (empty circles) and AgNO3 (filled circles), and (b) Au nanoparticles synthesized from an Au foil anode (empty circles) and HAuCl4 (filled circles). Adapted with permission from Ref. 29 , Copyright 2008, American Institute of Physics.
(Color online) (a) Digital image of carbon arc discharge in water (scale bar = 12 mm). (b) Low- and (c) high-magnification electron micrographs of carbon nano-onions floating on the water surface after their production (scale bars = 10 nm). Adapted with permission from Ref. 70 . Copyright 2001, Nature Publishing Group.
(a) Flow-through measuring cell operated in open air consisting of an atmospheric dc air discharge and an acidic electrolytic cathode. The electrode gas is 2–6 mm. C = graphite electrode, W = tungsten anode, P = voltage sensing probe. (b) Emission spectrum obtained from tap water spiked with 30 ppm Cu. A = K I (769.9 nm), B = K I (766.5 nm), C = Cu I (324.7 nm) (×2), D = Cu I (324.7 nm) (×2), E = Na D 589 nm, F = Mg I (285.3 nm) (×2), G = Cu I (510.5 nm), H = Hβ (486 nm), I = Ca I (422.7 nm), J = N2 + (358 nm), K = NH (337 nm), L = Cu I (327.4 nm), M = Cu 324.7 nm, N = OH (306 nm), O = Mg I (285 nm), P = Mg II (279 nm). Adapted with permission from Ref. 78 , Copyright 1994, RSC Publishing.
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