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From nanoscience to solutions in electrochemical energy storage
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10.1116/1.4816262
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4816262
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4816262
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Limitations in conventional storage structures: (a) slow ion diffusion in storage materials; (b) additional materials; (c) complex, tortuous transport paths. (b) and (c) adapted from Rolison (Ref. ). Reprinted with permission from Long and Rolison, Acc. Chem. Res. , 9 (2007). Copyright 2007, Elsevier.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Nanomaterials issues in Li-ion batteries. (a) Cathodic materials must transport and accommodate high concentrations of ions (Li) from electrolyte, a challenge to nanomaterials design [shown is olivine LiFePO4 along [001], from Ref. )]. Anodic materials must maintain electrical connectivity to current transport structures despite major structural modification and stresses caused by ion incorporation (Ref. ) [shown is a 250 nm thick Si anode after (b) 1 and (c) 30 electrochemical cycles.] (a) Reprinted with permission from Tarascon and Armand, Nature , 359 (2001). Copyright 2001, Nature. (b) and (c) Kasavajjula , J. Power Sources , 2 (2007). Copyright 2007, Elsevier.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Regular nanostructure architectures: (a) excavated structure - single electrode comprised of nanotube array of storage material and current collector inside inert nanopore template; (b) extruded structure - corresponding single electrode without any remaining inert template; (c) 3D solid state battery, comprised of both electrodes, their current collectors, and solid or gel electrolyte all embedded inside inert nanopore template. Lateral dimensions, lengths/depths, and/or spacings between nanostructures display reasonable uniformity.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Silicon nanowire anodes, (a), (b) grown without templating resulting in highly disordered nanostructures (Ref. ); (c) an AAO template assisted VLS growth of silicon nanowires resulting in a regular array of nanowires; (d) cartoon demonstrating an aligned array of MnO2 nanowires (Ref. ). (a) and (b) Reprinted with permission from Cho , J. Power Sources , 467 (2012). Copyright 2012, Elsevier. (c) Image courtesy of S. Tom Picraux. (d)Reprinted with permission from Duay , ACS Nano , 1200 (2013). Copyright 2013, The American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Nanostructured architectures for controlled transport pathways. (a) Aperiodic electrodes providing 1D or 2D connectivity; (b) conventional battery architecture using nanowire electrodes; (c) integrated 3D solid battery configuration (Ref. ). Reprinted with permission from Baggetto , Adv. Funct. Mater. , 7 (2008). Copyright 2008, Wiley.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Impact of the “three self's.” (a) approaches enable fabrication of MOS transistor from a single lithographic mask; (b) of nanopores in anodic aluminum oxide provides a template for forming self-aligned capacitors within the pores comprised of ultrathin (5–12 nm) metal-insulator-metal layers controlled by reaction in atomic layer deposition (Ref. ). Reprinted with permission from Banerjee , Nat. Nanotechnol. Lett. , 5 (2009). Copyright 2009, Nature.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Heterogeneous 3D EES architectures in which the scaffold also serves as the current collector for either the anode or cathode of Li-ion cells. (a) Nanoheterostructured cathode where ALD VO is deposited onto a CNT sponge (Ref. ); (b) Prieto battery constructed by deposition of conformal active EES material layers onto a porous copper foam scaffold also serving as the anode current collector (Ref. ); (c)–(e) Rolison's ultracapacitor fabricated on a MnO ambigel template (Ref. ). (a) Reprinted with permission from Chen , ACS Nano , 9 (2012). Copyright 2012, The American Chemical Society. (b) Prieto Battery, 2013. [Online]. Copyright 2013, Prieto Battery. (c) Long and Rolison, Acc. Chem. Res. , 9 (2007). Copyright 2007, The American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Recent instrumental advances have brought the capability of TEM electrochemical characterization of single nanostructures. (a) experimental setup (Ref. ); (b) TEM image of cracking in a fully lithiated silicon nanowire (Ref. ); (c) pulverization of an aluminum nanowire after electrochemical lithiation and delithiation (Ref. ). (d) Stepwise radial lithiation mechanism in silicon nanowires (Ref. ). (e) cartoon depicting the effect of carbon coatings on the lithiation mechanism of tin nanowires (Refs. ). (a) and (b) Reprinted with permission from Liu , Nano Lett. , 11 (2011). Copyright 2011, The American Chemical Society. (c) Reprinted with permission from Liu , Nano Lett. , 10 (2011). Copyright 2011, The American Chemical Society. (d) Reprinted with permission from Liu , Nat. Nanotechnol. Lett. , 749 (2012). Copyright 2012, Nature. (e) Reprinted with permission from Zhang , ACS Nano , 4800 (2011). Copyright 2011, The American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Nanoheterostructured electrodes of fabricated by (a), (b) ALD TiN into an AAO template followed by ECD of MnO nanoflakes (Ref. ); (c) cartoon showing the PEDOT nanowire with impregnated MnO nanoparticle heterostructure (Ref. ); (d) Cartoon demonstrating fabrication of a core MnO nanowire covered in MnO nanoflakes; (e) SEM images of the nanoflake-coated MnO nanowires (Ref. ). (a) and (b) Reprinted with permission from Sherrill , Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. , 33 (2011). Copyright 2011, The American Chemical Society. (c) Reprinted with permission from Liu , ACS Nano , 7 (2010). Copyright 2010, The American Chemical Society. (d) Reprinted with permission from Sang Bok Lee. (e) Duay , ACS Nano , 2 (2013). Copyright 2013, The American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Functionalization of (a) single walled carbon nanotubes from one sp3 point defect (Ref. ); (b) Cartoon demonstrating electrical conductivity of functionalized single and double walled carbon nanotubes. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes maintain high conductivity despite surface functionalization due to the pristine inner tube (Ref. ); (c) TEM image and (d) cartoon of functionalized CNT@Si heterostructure with silicon beads on a carbon nanotube (Ref. ). Reprinted with permission from Deng , Nat. Commun. , 382 (2011). Copyright 2011, Nature. (b) Reprinted with permission from Brozena , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 11 (2010). Copyright 2010, The American Chemical Society. (c) and (d) Reprinted with permission from Sun , ACS Nano , 3 (2013). Copyright 2013, The American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Ionics and electrodics challenges at the mesoscale. (a) Nanostructured electrodes in close proximity. (b) Ion and electron transport phenomena originating from close proximity of electrochemical nanostructures.

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2013-07-25
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: From nanoscience to solutions in electrochemical energy storage
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4816262
10.1116/1.4816262
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