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Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio systems
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10.1116/1.4816584
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    Affiliations:
    1 MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 and Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
    2 Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 and Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
    3 MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 and Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
    4 Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104
    5 Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research and Department of Plant Sciences and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
    6 MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, and Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
    a) X. Z. Fan, E. Pomerantseva, and M. Gnerlich contributed equally to this work.
    b) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; electronic mail: ghodssi@umd.edu
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31, 050815 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.4816584
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4816584
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4816584

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) TMV structure: (a, b) Molecular model showing the top and side view of a TMV virion. (c) A ribbon diagram of a single coat protein subunit. (d) A TEM image of wild-type TMV image courtesy of Tomas Moravec.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) CAD drawing showing the structural location of the TMV-1Cys mutation. (a) A top down view showing coat proteins of half a turn within the TMV rod and (b) 2× magnification of an edge view for the same single turn (location of the cysteine mutation on the n-terminus is highlighted in spherical representation). Reprinted with permission from K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, E. Royston, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, J. Micromech. Microeng. (10), 104003 (2008). Copyright 2007, IOP Publishing.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) Schematic presentation of the synthesis of metallic nanowires in the inner channel of TMV particle. Adapted from Ref. . (b) TEM image of a single virion containing a ca. 250 nm long nickel wire inside the inner TMV channel. Reprinted with permission from M. Knez, M. Sumser, A. M. Bittner, C. Wege, H. Jeske, T. P. Martin, and K. Kern, Adv. Funct. Mater. (2), 116 (2004). Copyright 2004, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

TEM images of (a) a TMV particle (only the contours appear dark; the coat proteins and the central channel are transparent); (b) a TMV after Pd(II) adsorption (activation), followed by reduction. Reprinted with permission from M. Knez, A. M. Bittner, F. Boes, C. Wege, H. Jeske, E. Maiβ, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. (8), 1079 (2003). Copyright 2003, American Chemical Society; (c) two TMVs densely covered with palladium particles; (d, e) Pt(II) pretreated TMVs metallized with (d) nickel and (e) cobalt. Reprinted with permission from M. Knez, M. Sumser, A. M. Bittner, C. Wege, H. Jeske, T. P. Martin, and K. Kern, Adv. Funct. Mater. (2), 116 (2004). Copyright 2004, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a) Diagram for the assembly of nickel- and cobalt-coated TMV-1Cys templates attached to a gold surface. Reprinted with permission from E. Royston, A. Ghosh, P. Kofinas, M. T. Harris, and J. N. Culver, Langmuir (3), 906 (2008). Copyright 2008. American Chemical Society. (b, c) SEM images at two magnifications of nickel-coated TMV self-assembled nanostructures. Reprinted with permission from K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, E. Royston, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, J. Micromech. Microeng. (10), 104003 (2008). Copyright 2007, IOP Publishing. (d) TEM image showing a cross section of nickel-coated TMV-1Cys attached perpendicular to a gold-coated surface. Reprinted with permission from E. Royston, A. Ghosh, P. Kofinas, M. T. Harris, and J. N. Culver, Langmuir (3), 906 (2008). Copyright 2008, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) Schematic diagram representing TMV-1Cys horizontal assembly onto gold surfaces followed by reductive metallization of the Pd precursor. (b) AFM image of surface-assembled TMV-1Cys on a gold chip. (c) AFM image of Pd nanoparticles formed on surface-assembled TMV-1Cys. Reprinted with permission from A. K. Manocchi, S. Seifert, B. Lee, and H. Yi, Langmuir (10), 7516 (2010). Copyright 2010, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) TEM image of TMV treated with TiO by ALD. (b) After ultrasonication the TiO is partially removed from the outer surface and mainly the inner channel of the TMV remains covered with TiO. Reprinted with permission from M. Knez, A. Kadri, C. Wege, U. Gösele, H. Jeske, and K. Nielsch, Nano Lett. (6), 1172 (2006). Copyright 2006, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) AFM amplitude images of ZnO-mineralized TMV nanowires on silicon substrates. The nanowire thickness increases with the number of the deposited cycles. Reprinted with permission from P. Atanasova, D. Rothenstein, J. J. Schneider, R. C. Hoffmann, S. Dilfer, S. Eiben, C. Wege, H. Jeske, and J. Bill, Adv. Mater. (42), 4918 (2011). Copyright 2004, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Side (a) and bottom (b) view TEM images of TMV particles coated with layers of nickel (electroless plating) and AlO (ALD)—EDS line-scan data of the STEM image (c) are shown in the (d)–(f) for the elements of interest (Al, Ni, O). Reprinted with permission from K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, P. Banerjee, X. Fan, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, Nanotechnology (5), 055304 (2010). Copyright 2007, IOP Publishing.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Self-assembling structures of TMV CP (incorporated His tag shown on the outer extremity of each coat protein). Transitions in the highlighted region also occur for wild-type TMV CP. Transitions outside the highlighted area occur for TMV CP over time, with the rate of formation dependent on solution H and ionic strength. Reprinted with permission from M. A. Bruckman, C. M. Soto, H. McDowell, J. L. Liu, B. R. Ratna, K. V. Korpany, O. K. Zahr, and A. S. Blum, ACS Nano (3), 1606 (2011). Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) (a) Schematic of the fabrication of conductive polyaniline/TMV composite nanowires. Similar processes can be used to prepare composite nanofibers with other conductive polymers (for example, polypyrrole, Ppy). TEM images of (b) PSS/PPy/TMV composite nanowires, and (c) PSS/PPy/LF composite long fiber using pyrrole as starting materials. Reprinted with permission from Z. Niu, J. Liu, L. A. Lee, M. A. Bruckman, D. Zhao, G. Koley, and Q. Wang, Nano Lett. (12), 3729 (2007). Copyright 2007, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) AFM images of TMV assembled onto (a) amine-, (b) silicon oxide-, (c) acryloxy-, and (d) methyl-terminated surfaces. The images reveal a strong dependence of viral ordering on the surface energy of the substrate as seen by the average surface roughness. Reprinted with permission from S. P. Wargacki, B. Pate, and R. A. Vaia, Langmuir (10), 5439 (2008). Copyright 2008, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

SEM images of TMV-1Cys that was first patterned using a lift-off technique with (a) 5:1 buffer:developer mixture and (b) acetone. The TMV-1Cys was then coated with nickel to verify postpatterning chemical functionality. Images (c) and (d) show close-up views of the textured surfaces. Reprinted with permission from K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, P. Banerjee, X. Fan, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, Nanotechnology (5), 055304 (2010). Copyright 2007, IOP Publishing.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

SEM images of three-dimensional microstructures covered with TMV-1Cys/Ni, (a) SU-8 structures, (b) structures etched in silicon. Bottom pictures (c) and (d) show exploded views of the textured surfaces outlined by the dotted areas in (a) and (b). Reprinted with permission from K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, P. Banerjee, X. Fan, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, Nanotechnology (5), 055304 (2010). Copyright 2007, IOP Publishing.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of RNA-guided bottom-up assembly of TMV CP that are spatially directed to surface patches predefined by polymer blend lithography. (b) AFM topography image of TMV CP rods with site-specific assembly, and close-up is shown in (c). Reprinted with permission from A. Mueller, F. J. Eber, C. Azucena, A. Petershans, A. M. Bittner, H. Gliemann, H. Jeske, and C. Wege, ACS Nano (6), 4512 (2011). Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(Color online) (a) Diagram showing exposed RNA selectively hybridizes with DNA probes immobilized on a chitosan layer compare to a bare gold electrode. (b) Fluorescent imaging showing selective hybridization relative to bare gold electrode as well as no probe and 6xHis Probe. Adapted from Ref. . (c) Flow diagram showing hybridization-based programming of two types fluorescently labeled and partially disassembled TMV-1Cys nanotemplates for assembly onto DNA oligonucleotide microarray platform. Adapted from Ref. .

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

(Color online) Peak currents of TNT reduction using phosphate buffer, unmodified TMV and TMV-TNT-BP binding agent.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

(Color online) Ni-Zn microbattery with nanostructured TMV-1Cys-templated electrodes: (a) Schematic of microbattery layers, (b) Photograph of the device diced in half and its cross-sectional schematic; (c) Photograph of a packaged microbattery showing the fluidic and electrical connections. Reprinted with permission from K. Gerasopoulos, M. McCarthy, E. Royston, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, J. Micromech. Microeng. (10), 104003 (2008). Copyright 2007, IOP Publishing.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

(Color online) SEM images of (a) pristine TMV-1Cys-templated Si electrode and (b) after 75 cycles at 1 C. (c) TEM image of a pristine single TMV-1Cys-templated particle with EDS profiles of Ni and Si with corresponding (d) HRTEM image and (e) FFT image of silicon layer. (f) TEM image with EDS spectra for nickel and silicon after 75 cycles at 1 C with corresponding (g) HRTEM image and (h) FFT image of silicon layer. Reprinted with permission from X. Chen, K. Gerasopoulos, J. Guo, A. Brown, C. Wang, R. Ghodssi, and J. N. Culver, ACS Nano (9), 5366 (2010). Copyright 2010, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

TMV-1Cys-templated VO cathode: (a) SEM image; (b) cross-section TEM image with EDS analysis (inset). Reprinted with permission from E. Pomerantseva, K. Gerasopoulos, X. Chen, G. Rubloff, and R. Ghodssi, J. Power Sources , 282 (2012). Copyright 2012, Elsevier.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

(Color online) (a) Schematic representation of the hierarchical electrode fabrication. (b) SEM image of hierarchical electrodes. (c, d) Discharge capacity and capacity retention of the cells with the hierarchical electrodes and electrodes with nanostructures only in the voltage range of 2.6–3.6 V (C-rates are indicated in the figure). Reprinted with permission from K. Gerasopoulos, E. Pomerantseva, M. McCarthy, A. Brown, C. Wang, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, ACS Nano (7), 6422 (2012). Copyright 2012, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

(Color online) (a) Discharge/charge curves for hierarchical electrodes with different active material thickness at a current of 12 μA; VO was deposited for 1000, 2000, and 4000 ALD cycles, aiming at thickness of 30, 60, and 120 nm, respectively. (b, c) Cross-section TEM images taken from the sidewalls of micropillars for samples with (b) 2000 and (c) 4000 ALD cycles of VO. Reprinted with permission from K. Gerasopoulos, E. Pomerantseva, M. McCarthy, A. Brown, C. Wang, J. N. Culver, and R. Ghodssi, ACS Nano 120606181550007 (2012). Copyright 2012, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

Surface topography (a), (c), and (e); and piezoresponse images (b), (d), and (f) of TMV at different resolutions obtained by PFM. Reprinted with permission from S. V. Kalinin, S. Jesse, W. Liu, and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. , 153901 (2006). Copyright 2006, American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

(Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of the TMV/ZnO FET, and (b) output characteristics of TMV/ZnO for VDS of 0–30 V with VGS from 0–30 V. Adapted from Ref. .

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

(Color online) (a) Schematic of producing Janus microparticles, (b) fluorescently labeled TMV Janus microparticles, and (c) Janus microparticles that contain magnetic and catalytic nanoparticles. Reprinted with permission from C. L. Lewis, Y. Lin, C. Yang, A. K. Manocchi, K. P. Yuet, P. S. Doyle, and H. Yi, Langmuir (16), 13436 (2010). Copyright 2010, American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

Superhydrophobic hierarchical plant structures compared to virus-templated biomimetic surfaces. SEM images of the (a) taro plant (), (b) parrot feather plant (), and (c)–(e) lotus plant () at various scales. (f)–(h) SEM images of the biomimetic hierarchical structures synthesized for this work using the assembled onto an array of micropillars at various scales. Reprinted with permission from M. McCarthy, K. Gerasopoulos, R. Enright, J. N. Culver, R. Ghodssi, and E. N. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (10), 5 (2012). Copyright 2012, American Institute of Physics. Note: (a) Reprinted with permission from A. Solga, Z. Cerman, B. F. Striffler, M. Spaeth, and W. Barthlott, Bioinspir. Biomim. (4), S126 (2007). Copyright 2007, IOP Publishing; (b)–(e) Reprinted with permission from K. Koch, B. Bhushan, and W. Barthlott, Prog. Mater. Sci. (2), 137 (2009). Copyright 2009, Elsevier.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

TMV conjugations for micro/nano/bio systems applications.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

FET performance parameters for TMV/ZnO.

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2013-08-05
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio systems
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/31/5/10.1116/1.4816584
10.1116/1.4816584
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