No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow
2. Source: Intel Chip History poster.
3. O. Auciello and D.L. Flamm, Plasma Diagnostics: Discharge Parameters andChemistry (Academic, NewYork, 1989).
4. D. M. Manos and D.L. Flamm, Plasma Etching: An Introduction(Academic, New York, 1989).
5. M. A. Lieberman and A.J. Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and MaterialsProcessing, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons,Inc., New York, 2005).
6. Y. P. Raizer, Gas Discharge Physics(Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
7. B. Chapman, Glow Discharge Processes(Wiley-Interscience, USA, Canada, 1980).
9. F. Simeon, in A Discussion on “The Making of ReflectingSurfaces” (The Fleetway, Imperial College of Science andTechnology, South Kensington, S.W.7, 1920), pp. 26.
15. R. Glang and L.V. Gregor, in Handbook of Thin Film Technology,edited by L. Maissel and R. Glang (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970).
17. M. P. Lepselter, US patent 3,442,701 (6 May 1969).
18. P. D. Davidse, in 13th National Vacuum Symposium of theAVS, edited by W. J. Lange (SanFrancisco, 1966), pp. 51–52.
21. S. M. Irving, in ECS National Meeting(Fall, 1967), Abstract 180.
22. S. M. Irving, in Kodak Photoresist Seminar Proceedings(1968), Vol. II, pp. 26.
23. S. M. Irving, Solid State Technol. 14, 47 (1971).
24. D. L. Tolliver, Solid State Technol. 23, 99 (1980).
26. S. M. Irving, K.E. Lemons, and G.E. Bobos, US patent 3,615,956 (26 Oct. 1971).
30. R. L. Bersin, Solid State Technol. 13, 39 (1970).
31. A. R. Reinberg, US patent 3,757,733 (11Sept. 1973).
32. N. Hosokawa, R. Matsuzaki, and T. Asamaki [Proceedings of the 6th International VacuumCongress, 1974], Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, 435 (1974).
33. J. M. Harvilchuck, J.S. Logan, W.C. Metzger, and P.M. Schaible, US patent 3,994,793 (30Nov. 1976).
38. F. D. Egitto, D. N.K. Wang, D. Maydan, and D. Benzing, Solid State Technol. 24, 71 (1981).
41. D. Maydan, US patent 4,298,443 (3 Nov. 1981).
42. J. Maher, Semicond. Int. 6, 110 (1983).
43. O. A. Popov, High Density Plasma Sources, Design, Physics andPerformance (Noyes, Park Ridge,NJ, 1995).
45. R. N. Castellano, Semiconductor Device Processing: TechnologyTrends in the VLSI Era (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1992).
48. G. J. Gorin, U.S. Patent 4,446,223 (7 August 1984).
49. R. Limpaechert and K.R. MacKenzie, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 726 (1973).
51. E. H. Lenz, US patent 6,602,381 (5 Aug. 2003).
54. S. Sriraman, K. Kanarik, and R.A. Gottscho, in AVS 59th National Symposium(American Vacuum Society, Tampa, FL, 2012), pp. 73.
55. R. Dhindsa et al., US patent 7,405,521 (29 July 2008).
56. W. T. Lai, C.J. Hwang, A.T. Wang, J.C. Yau, J.H. Liao, L.H. Chen, K. Adachi, and S. Okamoto, in Proceedings of the 28th International Symposiumon Dry Process (Institute of Electrical Engineers, Nagoya, Japan, 2006).
59. L. Xu, L. Chen, M. Funk, A. Ranjan, M. Hummel, R. Bravenec, R. Sundararajan, D.J. Economou, and V.M. Donnelly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261502 (2008).
60. L. Chen and M. Funk, in 63rd Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference and 7thInternational Conference on Reactive Plasmas (American Physical Society,Paris, France, 2010), AbstractCTP.00154.
61. M. Honda, K. Yatsuda and L. Chen, in AVS 55th International Symposium(American Vacuum Society, Boston, MA, 2008), pp. 142.
62. J. C. Forster and J.H. Keller, in High Density Plasma Sources, edited by O.A. Popov (NoyesPublications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1995),pp. 76–99.
64. J. E. Stevens, in High Density Plasma Sources, edited by O.A. Popov (NoyesPublications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1995),pp. 312–379.
65. S. Kawamura, N. Itabashi, A. Makino, and M. Sakaguchi, Hitachi Rev. 51, 95 (2002).
66. F. F. Chen, in High Density Plasma Sources, edited by O.A. Popov (NoyesPublications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1995),pp. 1–75.
71. G. Campbell, R.W. Conn, and T. Shoji, US patent 4,990,229 (5 Feb. 1991).
73. R. Bravenec, J. Zhao, L. Chen, and M. Funk, in 63rd Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference and 7thInternational Conference on Reactive Plasmas (American Physical Society,Paris, France, 2010), AbstractCTP.00059.
74. J. Zhao, R. Bravenec, L. Chen, M. Funk, R. Sundararajan, Koji Koyama, T. Nozawa, and S. Samukawa, in APS 63rd Annual Gaseous Electronics Conferenceand 7th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas (American PhysicalSociety, Paris, France, 2010), AbstractBT2.0000.
78. N. Layadi, S.J. Molloy, A. Kornblit, J. T.C. Lee, T.M. Wolf, and D.E. Ibbotson, Plasma Etching in Microelectronics(American Vacuum Society, New York, 2001).
80. D. Nest, D.B. Graves, S. Engelmann, R.L. Bruce, F. Weilnboeck, G.S. Oehrlein, C. Andes, and E.A. Hudson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153113 (2008).
81. A. R. Reinberg, in Plasma Etching—An Introduction,edited by D.M. Manos and D. L. Flamm (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 358.
87. W. R. Harshbarger, R.A. Porter, T.A. Miller, and P. Norton, Appl. Opt. 31, 201 (1977).
91. P. A. Heimann, J.M. Moran, and R.J. Schutz, US patent 4,680,084 (14 July 1987).
93. H. H. Sawin, W.T. Conner, T.J. Dalton, and E.M. Sachs, US patent 5,450,205 (12September 1995).
94. D. L. Flamm and G.K. Herb, in Plasma Etching—An Introduction, edited by D.M. Manos and D. L. Flamm (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 1–89.
95. C. W. Jurgensen, R.R. Kola, A.E. Novembre, W.W. Tai, J. Frackoviak, L.E. Trimble, and G.K. Geller, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3280 (1991).
96. A. Kornblit, in Lam Research Corporation TechnicalSymposium (San Francisco, CA, 1998) (unpublished).
97. A. Kornblit, J.T.-C. Lee, H. Lee, and H.L. Maynard, US patent 6,228,277 (8 May 2001).
101. This quote is widely (and erroneously) attributed toAristotle (4th century BCE), based on misinterpretation of statement in Metaphysics, Book 8, Sec.1045a. See: Sheila Guberman and Gianfranco Minati, Dialogue about Systems (2007), Section C.4, pp.181–182. It is true, however, that Aristotle says that there are instances that “…you may have theparts and yet not have the whole, so that parts and whole cannot be the same” (Topics, Book VI, Sec.13, translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge).
114. I. P. Herman, Optical Diagnostics for Thin FilmProcessing (Academic, SanDiego, 1996).
168. M. A. Vyvoda, H. Lee, M.V. Malyshev, F.P. Klemens, M. Cerullo, V.M. Donnelly, D.B. Graves, A. Kornblit, and J. T.C. Lee, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3247 (1998).
169. M. A. Vyvoda, M. Li, D.B. Graves, H. Lee, M.V. Malyshev, F.P. Klemens, J. T.C. Lee, and V.M. Donnelly, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 820 (2000).
180. Silicon nitride can be either stoichiometric Si3N4 oreither silicon or nitrogen rich, depending on requirements. In case of plasma-enhanced deposition,hydrogen may be incorporated in the film as well. Unless otherwise specified, SiN refers to any ofthese materials.
206. T. E. F. M. Standaert, E.A. Joseph, G.S. Oehrlein, A. Jain, W.N. Gill, J. P.C. Wayner, and J.L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2742 (2000).
209. D. L. Flamm, in Plasma Etching—An Introduction, editedby D.M. Manos and D. L. Flamm (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 91–183.
210. C. J. Mogab, in VLSI Technology, 1sted., edited by S. M. Sze (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983), pp. 303–345.
217. D. J. Vitkavage, A. Kornblit, S.C. McNevin, D.P. Favreau, and R.S. Nicholas, in Proceedings of the Tegal PlasmaSeminar (Redwood City, CA, 1991), late submission, included in the proceedings.
219. Y. Yamamura, Y. Itikawa, and N. Itoh, Nagoya University Institute of Plasma Physics ReportIPPJ-AM-26 (1983).
220. M. R. Nakles, M.S. thesis (Virginia Polytechnic Instituteand State University, 2004).
221. J. M. E. Harper, in Plasma Etching—An Introduction, editedby D.M. Manos and D. L. Flamm (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 406–423.
223. M. Vyvoda, H. Lee, M.V. Malyshev, F.P. Klemens, M. Cerullo, V.M. Donnelly, D.B. Graves, and A. K. J.T. C. Lee, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3247 (1998).
224. K. H. A. Bogart, F.P. Klemens, M.V. Malyshev, J.I. Colonell, V.M. Donnelly, J. T.C. Lee, and J.M. Lane, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 197 (2000).
225. M. A. Vyvoda, H. Lee, M.V. Malyshev, F.P. Klemens, M. Cerullo, V.M. Donnelly, D.B. Graves, A. Kornblit, and J. T.C. Lee, in AVS 44th International Symposium(American Vacuum Society, San Jose,CA, 1997).
226. K. H. A. Bogart, F.P. Klemens, J. Lane, M.V. Malyshev, V.M. Donnelly, A. Kornblit, and J. T.C. Lee, in AVS 45th International Symposium(American Vacuum Society, Baltimore,MD, 1998).
228. P. Werbaneth, Z. Hasan, P. Rajora, and M. Rousey-Seidel, in International Conference on CompoundSemiconductor Manufacturing Technology (CS MANTECH, 1999).
230. N. A. Ciampa, J.I. Colonell, A. Kornblit and J. T.C. Lee, in AVS 43rd National Symposium(American Vacuum Society, Philadelphia,PA, 1996).
231. C. Chu and T.A. Letson, US patent 7,208,399 (24 Apr. 2007); also filed with the World International Property Organization, 7 Dec. 1999 andpublished as WO 00/34984, 15 June 2000).
234. R. J. Shul and J.G. Fleming, in Handbook of Advanced Plasma ProcessingTechniques, edited by R. J. Shul and S. J. Pearton (Springer, New York, 2000), pp. 419–458.
236. Freon® is DuPont's trademark for fluorinated orpartially fluorinated hydrocarbons, used mainly for refrigeration purposes (the electronic-gradeequivalent is marketed under the trademark Zyron®). It is commonly used in the literatureeven though many of these substances are not manufactured by DuPont. The Freon (or Zyron) numberingscheme follows what is known as the ‘DuPont 90 Rule’: If the number 90 is added to the Freon number,a three digit number is obtained; the first second and the third digits correspond to the number ofcarbon, hydrogen and fluorine atoms, respectively. Thus, adding the number 90 to 23 (Freon 23) willyield 113, corresponding to CHF3. If the number of bonds is not satisfied by the aboveprocedure, the missing atoms are Cl, thus Freon 11 will have one carbon, one fluorine, and threechlorine atoms (CFCl3). If bromine atoms are included in the molecule, the suffix B isadded, followed by the number of the bromine atoms (e.g., Freon 12B1–CBrClF2). Source:Michael Mocella (DuPont).
248. M. Yamada, Y. Ito, K. Inazawa, A. Toure, K. Hinata, and H. Sakima, US patent 6,159,862 (12 Dec. 2000).
249. T. Yanagida, US patent 5,338,399 (16Aug. 1994).
250. P. Forster et al., in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change (Chapter 2: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing),edited by S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller (CambridgeUniversity, Cambridge, England, 2007),pp. 212–213.
251. B. Ji, S. Motika, P. Badowski, S. Dheandhanoo, J.R. Stets, and E.J. Karwacki, Solid State Technol. 48, 45 (2005).
253. C. J. Radens and C.A. Fairchock, US patent 5,928,967 (27July 1999).
254. H. J. Stocker, US patent 4,484,979 (27November 1984).
257. S. Kadomura, US patent 4,654,114 (31Mar. 1987).
258. D. Thomas, Y. Song, and K. Powell, Solid State Technol. 44, 107 (2001).
259. S. P. Murarka, Silicides for VLSI Applications(Academic, New York, 1983).
260. J. S. Deslauriers and H.J. Levinstein, US patent 4,472,237 (18Sept. 1984).
261. G. K. Herb, in MRS Proceedings (MaterialResearch Society, 1986), Vol. 68, p. 3.
263. E. Kobeda, N.J. Mazzeo, J.P. Gambino, H. Ng, G.L. Patton, J.D. Warnock, S. Basavaiah, J.F. White, and J.D. Cressler, J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 3007 (1993).
265. A. Kornblit, J.J. DeMarco, J. Garofalo, D.A. Mixon, A.E. Novembre, S. Vaidya, and T. Kook, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2944 (1995).
266. R. Ditizio, P. Werbaneth, and J.-G. Zhu, Semicond. Manufact. Mag. 5, 90 (2004).
268. C. Zarowin, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conferenceon Plasma Chemistry (1979), 56 pp.
271. C. P. Chang et al., in IEDM Technical Digest (Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 661.
274. F. P. Klemens et al., in The 192nd Meeting of the Electrochemical Societyand the 48th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry (TheElecrochemical Society, Paris, France, 1997), Electrochemical Society Proceedings, Vols. 97–30, p.85.
275. L. Manchanda et al., in IEDM Technical Digest (San Francisco, CA, 2000), p. 23.
276. C. Auth et al., Intel Technol. J. 12, 77 (2008).
277. O. Joubert et al., in AVS 53rd International Symposium(American Vacuum Society, San Francisco,CA, 2006), p. 10.
278. K. Pelhos, V.M. Donnelly, A. Kornblit, M.L. Green, R. B.V. Dover, L. Manchanda, Y. Hu, M. Morris, and E. Bower, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 1361 (2001).
279. L. Sha and J.P. Chang, in AVS 49th International Symposium(American Vacuum Society, Denver, CO, 2002), p. 31.
280. J. T. C. Lee et al., in 25th International Conference on Phenomena inIonized Gases (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, Nagoya, Japan, July 18, 2001), Workshop I (1).
281. M. Niwa, in 7th Annual SEMATECH Symposium, (SEMATECH,Tokyo, Japan, 2011).
285. J. P. Roland, N.E. Hendrickson, D.D. Kessler, J. Donald E. Novy, and D.W. Quint, Hewlett Packard J. 34, 30 (1983).
286. D. B. Fraser, in VLSI Technology, 1sted., edited by S. M. Sze (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983), pp. 369–372.
287. H. J. Levinstein and D.N. Wang, US patent 4,256,534 (17 Mar. 1981).
290. S. I. J. Ingrey, H.J. Nentwich, and R.G. Poulsen, US patent 4,030,967 (21 June 1977).
291. W. R. Harshbarger, H.J. Levinstein, C.J. Mogab, and R.A. Porter, US patent 4,208,241 (17 June 1980).
293. T. Arikado, M. Sekine, H. Okano, and Y. Horiike, in International Electron Device Meeting(IEEE, Los Angeles, CA, 1986), pp. 54–57.
294. G. Cameron and A. Chambers, Semicond. Int. 12, 142 (1989).
297. J. Kriz, C. Angelkort, M. Czekalla, S. Huth, D. Meinhold, A. Pohl, S. Schulte, A. Thamm, and S. Wallace, Microelectron. Eng. 85, 2128 (2008).
298. Metalwork, Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite(Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, 2013).
300. K. Takeda, Y. Miyawaki, S. Takashima, M. Fukasawa, K. Oshima, K. Nagahata, T. Tatsumi, and M. Hori, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033303 (2011).
301. C. Labelle et al., in AVS 59th National Symposium(American Vacuum Society Tampa, FL, 2012), p. 148.
302. C. B. Labelle et al., in Proc. SPIE 8328: Advanced Etch Technology forNanopatterning (SPIE, 2012), paper 83280C.
303. International Technical Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Section: Interconnect(2011), 27 pp.
304. H. Cui, S.J. Kirk, and D. Maloney, in IEEE/SEMI Advanced Semiconductor ManufacturingConference (Stresa, Italy, June 2007).
307. X. Huang et al., in IEDM Technical Digest(IEEE, Washington DC, 1999), pp. 67–70.
308. C. Auth et al., in 2012 Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest ofTechnical Papers (2012), pp. 131–132.
309. H. Mendez, D.M. Fried, S.B. Samavedam, Thomas Hoffmann, and B.-Y. Nguyen, Solid State Technol. 52, 10 (2009).
310. C. Auth, in Custom Integrated Circuits Conference(CICC) (IEEE, San Jose, CA, 2012), pp. 1–6.
311. K. J. Kanarik, G. Kamarthy, and R.A. Gottscho, Solid State Technol. 55, 15 (2012).
312. P. L. Jones and C.B. Labelle, in Proc. of SPIE 8328: Advanced Etch Technologyfor Nanopatterning (SPIE, 2012), paper 8328-12.
314. K. J. Kuhn et al., in IEDM Technical Digest(IEEE, San Francisco, CA, 2012) pp. 8–11–81–4.
315. X. Mellhaoui, R. Dussart, A. Basillais, T. Tillocher, P. Lefaucheux, and P. Ranson, in AVS 50th International Symposium(Baltimore, MD, 2003), 145 pp.
316. T. Tillocher, A. Basillais, X. Mellhaoui, P. Lefaucheux, M. Boufnichel, R. Dussart, and P. Ranson, in AVS 50th National Symposium (Baltimore,MD, 2003), pp. 35.
317. X. Mellhaoui, R. Dussart, T. Tillocher, P. Lefaucheux, P. Ranson, M. Boufnichel, and L.J. Overzet, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104901 (2005).
318. F. Laermer and A. Schilp, US patent 5,501,893 (26 March 1996).
320. A. Kornblit et al., in Proceedings of the International Symposium onMicrofabricated Systems and MEMS VII, edited by J. L. Davidson, P. J. Hesketh, D. Misra, and S. Shoji (Electrochemical Society Honolulu, HI, 2004), pp. 11–25.
323. M. C. M. v. d. Sanden, M.A. Blauw, F. Roozeboom, and W. M.M. Kessels, in AVS 54th International Symposium(Seattle, WA, 2007), 19 pp.
325. F. Pardo et al., in Hilton Head Conference(2006).
329. K. B. Jung, E.S. Lambers, J.R. Childress, S.J. Pearton, M. Jenson, and J. A.T. Hurst, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1697 (1998).
332. K. B. Jung, J. Hong, a.H. Cho, S. Onishi, D. Johnson, Y.D. Park, J.R. Childress, and S.J. Pearton, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 535 (1999).
333. K. B. Jung, a.J. Hong, H. Cho, S. Onishi, D. Johnson, Y.D. Park, J.R. Childress, and S.J. Pearton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 2163 (1999).
334. R. Blumenthal and A.S. Orland, in AVS 49th International Symposium(Denver, CO, 2002), 119 pp.
337. J. L. Gaddis, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map thePast (Oxford University, NewYork, 2002).
339. “Semiconductor Industry Post Near-Record Sales Total in2012,” Semiconductor Industry Association (4 February 2013).
340. International Technical Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).
341. “Front end processes” in International TechnicalRoadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS, 2011).
342. “Emerging research materials” in InternationalTechnical Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS, 2011).
343. “Emerging research devices” in InternationalTechnical Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS, 2011).
344. “Process integration, devices, and structures” in International Technical Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS, 2011).
345. “Interconnect” in International Technical Roadmapfor Semiconductors (ITRS, 2011).
346. “Lithography” in International Technical Roadmapfor Semiconductors (ITRS, 2011).
347. R. A. Cirelli, O. Nalamasu, S. Pau, and G.P. Watson, US patent 6,218,057 (17 Apr. 2001).
348. S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 317 (2000).
349. Y. Chen, P. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Miao, X. Xu, C. Bencher, and C. Ngai, in International Symposium on LithographyExtensions (Kobe, Japan, 2010).
350. B. Mebarki, in 2010 International Symposium on LithographyExtensions (Kobe, Japan, 2010).
352. D. Medeiros, in 6th International Symposium on ImmersionLithography Extensions (Prague, 2009).
353. E. Kinsbron, W.E. Willenbrock, and H.J. Levinstein, in ECS Fall Meeting Extended Abstracts(Detroit, MI, 1982),Vol. 82-2, 243 pp.
354. E. Kinsbron and W.T. Lynch, US patent 4,432,132 (21February 1984).
359. Chris A. Mack, Field Guide to Optical Lithography(SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2006).
360. Chris Mack, Fundamental Principles of OpticalLithography (Wiley, Chichester,England, 2007).
363. W. H. Yan, W. Moreau, R. Wise, and Y. Chui, in AVS 46th International Symposium(Seattle, WA, 1999).
364. S. Halle, W.H. Yan, W. Moreau, J. Wittmann, and A. Gutmann, in AVS 46th International Symposium(Seattle, WA, 1999).
365. H. L. Maynard and W.W. Tai, “Striation reduction in oxide etching” (unpublished).
368. B. Ozpineci and L. Tolbert, “Silicon carbide: Smaller, faster, tougher” IEEE Spectrum(in press).
373. H. J. Cho et al., in Proceedings of the 36th European Solid-State DeviceResearch Conference, edited by M. D. Adrian M. Ionescu, and Yusuf Leblebici(Montreux, Switzerland, 2006), 146 pp.
374. D.-S. Kil et al., in 2004 Symposium on VLSl Technology Digest ofTechnical Papers (2004), pp. 126–127.
375. D.-S. Kil et al., in 2006 Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest ofTechnical Papers (Honolulu, HI, 2006), pp. 38–39.
376. C. B. Kaynak, Dr.-Ing Thesis, Technical University ofBerlin, 2013.
377. Micron Technology Phase Change Module Flyer (15 Oct. 2012).
378. I. S. Kim et al., in 2010 Symposium on VLSI Technology(2010), pp. 203–204.
379. S.-W. Chung et al., in 2006 Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest ofTechnical Papers (2006), pp. 32–33.
380. J. Y. Kim et al., 2003 Symposium on VLSl Technology Digest of TechnicalPapers (2003), pp. 11–12.
381. M. A. Siddiqi, Dynamic RAM: Technology Advancements(CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2012).
382. B. El-Kareh, G.B. Bronner, and S.E. Schuster, Solid State Technol. 40, 89 (1997).
383. M. Koyanagi, in IEEE SSCS News (Winter 2008), pp. 37–41.
384. K. W. Lee, T. Nakamura, T. Ono, Y. Yamada, T. Mizukusa, H. Hashimoto, K.T. Park, H. Kurino and M. Koyanagi, in IEDM Technical Digest (San Francisco,CA), pp. 165–168.
385. T. Fukushima, Y. Yamada, H. Kikuchi, and M. Koyanagi, in IEDM Technical Digest (Washington DC, 2005), pp. 359–362.
389. R. Hoofman, R. Daamen, J. Micheton, and V. Nguyenhoang, Solid State Technol. 49, 55 (2006).
390. R. H. Havemann and Shin-puu Jeng, US patent 5,461,003 (24 Oct. 1995).
393. P. A. Kohl, D.M. Bhusari, M. Wedlake, C. Case, F.P. Klemens, J. Miner, B.-C. Lee, R.J. Gutmann, and R. Shick, IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 21, 557 (2000).
400. J. J. Pla, K.Y. Tan, J.P. Dehollain, W.H. Lim1, J. J.L. Morton, F.A. Zwanenburg, D.N. Jamieson, A.S. Dzurak, and A. Morello, Nature 496, 334 (2013).
411. F. Roozboom et al., in Handbook of 3D Integration, Volume 1 - Technology and Applications of 3D IntegratedCircuits, edited by P. Garrou, C. Bower, and P. Ramm (John Wiley, U.S., 2011), Vol. 1 - Technologyand Applications of 3D Integrated Circuits, pp. 66–67.
413. L. J. Overzet, J.T. Verdeyen, R.M. Roth, and F.F. Carasco, presented at the Material Research Society Symposium,Pittsburgh, PA, 1987 (unpublished).
427. S. Samukawa, K. Noguchi, J.I. Colonell, K. H.A. Bogart, M.V. Malyshev, and V.M. Donnelly, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 18, 834 (2000).
437. L. Chen and Q. Yang, presented at the Electrochemical Society Symposium, LosAngeles, CA, 1996 (unpublished).
444. Y. Tamural et al., Presented at the 12th IEEE International Conference onNanotechnology (IEEE-NANO), The International Conference Centre Birmingham, Birmingham, UnitedKingdom, 2012 (unpublished).
450. V. M. Donnelly and D.J. Economou, “Atomic Layer Etching with Pulsed Plasmas,” ProvisionalPatent Application No. 61/286,572, 15 December 2009.
451. V. M. Donnelly and D.J. Economou, “ Atomic Layer Etching with PulsedPlasmas,” Provisional International Patent Application No. PCT/US/2010/060251, 14December 2010.
452. F. Schwierz, Nature Nanotechnol. 5, 487 (2010).
454. A. D. Franklin, M. Luisier, S.-J. Han, G. Tulevski, C.M. Breslin, L. Gignac, M.S. Lundstrom, and W. Haensch, Nano Lett. 12, 758 (2012).
455. M. Fuechsle, J.A. Miwa, S. Mahapatra, H. Ryu, S. Lee, O. Warschkow, L. C.L. Hollenberg, G. Klimeck, and M.Y. Simmons, Nature Nanotechnol. 7, 242 (2012).
Article metrics loading...
The field of plasma etching is reviewed. Plasma etching, a revolutionary extension of thetechnique of physical sputtering, was introduced to integrated circuit manufacturing as early as themid 1960s and more widely in the early 1970s, in an effort to reduce liquid waste disposal inmanufacturing and achieve selectivities that were difficult to obtain with wet chemistry. Quickly,the ability to anisotropically etch silicon, aluminum, and silicon dioxide in plasmas became thebreakthrough that allowed the features in integrated circuits to continue to shrink over the next 40years. Some of this early history is reviewed, and a discussion of the evolution in plasma reactordesign is included. Some basic principles related to plasma etching such as evaporation rates andLangmuir–Hinshelwood adsorption are introduced. Etching mechanisms of selected materials, silicon,silicon dioxide, and low dielectric-constant materials are discussed in detail. A detailed treatmentis presented of applications in current silicon integrated circuit fabrication. Finally, somepredictions are offered for future needs and advances in plasma etching for silicon andnonsilicon-based devices.
Full text loading...
Most read this month