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Tin oxide atomic layer deposition from tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin and water
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Schematic of the custom-built, hot-wall ALD reactor. The main part is a cylindrical tube, heated externally. The tube is fitted with inlets for N carrier gas and precursors close to its upstream end. A sample stage with temperature monitoring is positioned near the center of the tube. A separately pumped mass spectrometer is used to analyze gas sampled downstream of the stage by means of a needle valve. The calculated carrier gas flow and diffusion through the tube indicate even distribution of the gas. The flow profile in the mid section of the tube is shown.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

SnO growth rate determined by VASE, as a function of (a) and (c) TDMASn pulse length t for timing sequences of t:30:2:30 s and (b) and (d) HO pulse length t for timing sequences of 1:30:t:30 s. The substrate was Si(100) at 150 °C for (a) and (b) and at 30 °C for (c) and (d).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

SnO film thickness as a function of number of ALD cycles yielding a growth rate of 0.70 Å/cycle. Thicknesses were obtained using VASE for films deposited on Si(100) at 150 °C with a time sequence of 1:30:2:30.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

SnO ALD growth rate as a function of temperature determined using VASE for films deposited on Si(100) for 200 cycles with timing sequence 1:30:2:30 s.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

SnO growth rate at 30 °C determined by VASE as a function of nitrogen purge time following (a) TDMASn pulse length and (b) HO pulse length for timing sequences of 1:t:2:t s. The substrate was Si(100).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey scan of 46 nm SnO film deposited on Si(100) at 150 °C after Ar sputtering.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) XRD patterns for a 130 nm film of SnO deposited on Si(100) at 150 °C as function of annealing temperature under flow of N, as-deposited (featureless black curve) and after 600 °C anneal (upper curve, with diffraction peaks).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

SEM images of a 46 nm SnO film deposited on Si(100) at 150 °C (a)as-deposited; (b) post-500 °C anneal; (c) post-600 °C anneal; (d) cross-section of film post-600 °C anneal. The scale bars are 300 nm.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) (a) SnO film refractive index and (b) extinction coefficient extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry, as a function of the substrate temperature for films deposited using 200 ALD cycles. The inset in (b) illustrates plots of () with linear fits (dashed lines) to the approximately linear portion of the curve. Bandgaps are estimated from the intersection of the linear fits with () = 0. (c) Estimated bandgaps as a function of temperature, after 200 cycles of ALD. (d) Bandgaps as a function of film thickness for varying number of ALD cycles and a substrate temperature fixed to 150 °C. The dashed lines in (c) and (d) represent quadratic fits to the data.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Tin oxide atomic layer deposition from tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin and water