(Color online) Experimental setup with a voltage pulser for initiating cathode spots on the electrode surface and a Langmuir probe to measure plasma parameters.
(Color online) Electrode voltage (a) and cathode spot current (b) for a typical voltage pulse, resulting in cathode spot formation.
(Color online) Waveforms shown are: (a) the electrode voltage, (b) cathode spot current, (c) probe voltage, and (d) probe current as a function of time for the case where no powder was present on the electrode surface.
(Color online) (a) Electrode voltage, (b) cathode spot current, (c) probe voltage, and (d) probe current waveforms as a function of time, typical of cases with dielectric powder present on the electrode surface.
(Color online) Smoothed electron saturation current (a) and electron depletion percent (b) as a function of time.
(Color online) Electron depletion percent as a function of the initial overhead plasma electron density.
(a) Microscope image of the 45 μm powder shows particles of similar size, approximately 45 μm in diameter. (b) Microscope image of the 0.1 μm powder reveals significant particle clumping, forming clumps much larger than 0.1 μm in diameter [scale applies to (a) and (b)].
(Color online) Number of electrons per volume collected by the powder particles as a function of overhead plasma density is approximately constant for all cases.
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