(Color online) (a) and (c) AFM and SEM imaging, respectively, of the 1 μm W sputtered film. (b) and (d) AFM and SEM imaging, respectively, of the 5 μm W sputtered film, showing increased roughness of the 5 μm thick layer as compared to the 1 μm thick one. Preferential growth is observed in both samples.
(Color online) Comparison of reflectance of bulk W (Ref. 20 ) to the experimentally measured reflectance of (a) the 1 μm sputtered W coating and (b) the 5 μm sputtered W coating before and after the 1 h anneal in a tube furnace at different temperatures at a ramp rate of 2 °C/min.
(Color online) (a) and (c) AFM and SEM imaging, respectively, of the 5 μm W sputtered film before anneal (room temperature). (b) and (d) AFM and SEM imaging, respectively, of the 5 μm W sputtered film after anneal at 900 °C for 1 h. No noticeable difference in thickness was observed after anneal despite an increase in roughness.
(Color online) XRD data collected using a diffracted beam monochromator. The 1 and 5 μm W films deposited on a Si (1 0 0) substrate are compared at 25 °C. The predominant peak of the Si occurring at 69.3° corresponds to the (1 0 0) peak. The predominant peak of the W occurring at 40.2° corresponds to the (1 1 0) peak, and the other significant W peak occurring at 86.9° corresponds to the higher order peak (2 2 0). The presence of only one first order peak indicates the highly textured nature of the W sample. The small peak at 36.2° 2θ can be readily identified as copper K-β peak due to the XRD source, not the W coating. No W β-phase peaks are present.
(Color online) Left axis: FWHM of the 1 and 5 μm W sample as a function of temperature. Right axis: microstrain of the 1 and 5 μm W sample as a function of temperature. While the exact crystallite size could not be determined, the crystallite size of the 5 μm sample was clearly larger resulting in a smaller FWHM of the diffraction peak.
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