(Color online) Schematic illustration of processing steps proposed for the SALD of ZrO2 using ethanol as the oxygen source.
(Color online) ZrO2-ALD film thickness as a function of ALD cycle number showing excellent thickness tunability of the process on the silicon side of the substrate using ethanol as the oxygen source. The deposition was carried out at 200 °C substrate temperature and 500 mTorr deposition pressure using 6 s ZyALD:15 s Ar:10 s ethanol:20 s Ar pulses.
(Color online) XPS spectra of the silicon side of the substrate after 0 (a), 50 (b), and 100 (c) ALD cycles. Upon 5 min of Ar+ beam sputtering, the C 1s peak disappeared (d). All deposition conditions are the same as those mentioned in Fig. 2 .
(Color online) XPS spectra on copper side of the substrate after 0 (a), 70 (b), 100 (c), and 200 (d) ALD cycles, showing the onset of the ZrO2-ALD film growth only after 100 or more ALD cycles. The ALD conditions are the same as those in Fig. 2 .
(Color online) XPS survey scans on copper surface after 50 ZrO2 ALD cycles using water (a) and oxygen (b) as the ALD oxygen sources. All other ALD parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2 .
(Color online) Change in sheet resistance ((R − Ro)/Ro) of copper layer in as-deposited (Ro) and annealed (R) Cu/2 nm-thick ZrO2/Si structures. The annealing was carried out in 20 slpm of N2 for 5 min.
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