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Investigation of nanostructured transparent conductive films grown by rotational-sequential-sputtering
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of rotational sequential sputtering system, including four bottom-mounted parallel-gun targets with 4 in. diameters and a rotating sample-holder-plate for eight samples. Film deposition rate is controlled by the rotation speed of the sample holder and the shutter windows.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) TEM image of ITO/AlON NML films with periodic thickness of 3.6 nm. (b) FE-SEM image of ITO/AlON NML films with periodic thickness of 6.263 nm, in which an individual period comprises one brighter and one darker layer.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) XRD patterns of ITO films with InO phase and film thicknesses of 5.6, 24, and 213 nm. Inset illustrates the relationship between resistivity and film thickness at RTA 500 °C (▪) and 400 °C (◆).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) Transmittance and reflectance spectra of flexible ITO sample-a and sample-b, with resistivity values of 5.08 × 10−4 and 4.6 × 10−4 Ω·cm, respectively. (b) In the photograph of the flexible ITO substrates, cylindrical and flat ITO samples are placed on a compact disc to illustrate the transparency.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Ultrathin ITO films of various thicknesses are obtained by altering the rotation speed of the sample holder: (a) 57 s (3.29 nm), (b) 50 s (3.04 nm), (c) 42 s (2.66 nm), (d) 35 s (2.36 nm), (e) 31 s (2.07 nm), (f) 27 s (1.86 nm), (g) 20 s (1.66 nm), (h) 12 s (1.38 nm), and (i) 114 s (5.6 nm). XRR characterization is used to simulate the thicknesses of films [(a)–(e)] and then fitted using a two-layer model, as shown in the inset. The thicknesses of the films [(f)–(h)] are fitted using a single-layer model. The relationship between the thickness and resistivity of the films [(a)–(c) and (i)] is presented in the inset.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Measurement (○, circles) and simulation results (—, solid lines) obtained by XRR characterization. The thicknesses of the ultrathin ITO films are (a) 3.29 nm, (b) 3.04 nm, (c) 2.66 nm, (d) 2.36 nm, (e) 2.07 nm, (f) 1.86 nm, (g) 1.66 nm, and (h) 1.38 nm.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) XRR characterization results: Sample (a) is an 8-period (16 layers) TiO/ITO NML structure with TiO single-layer thickness of 1.78 nm and ITO of 1.2 nm; samples (b) and (c) are 10-period (20 layers) and 12-period (24 layers) SiO/ITO NML structures with ITO single-layer thicknesses of 4.8 nm and 5.75 nm, resulting in SiO/ITO thickness ratios of 0.5 and 0.9565, respectively.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Measurement results of reflectance and transmittance: samples include (a) TiO/ITO NML marked as (●, ○); (b) ITO marked as (▲, △,); (c) SiO/ITO NML marked as (▪, ◻), with total film thicknesses of 93 nm, 164 nm, 121.5 nm, respectively.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Relationship between resistivity and volume fractions of NML films: TiO/(TiO+ITO) and SiO/(SiO+ITO) films are marked with (●) and (♦), respectively; ITO film is marked with (▲). The two dashed lines indicate the margins of the transparent conductive NML films with resistivities lower than 10−3 Ω·cm.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Optical refractive index curves of TiO, ITO, and SiO are marked with solid lines. Optical refractive index curves of TiO/ITO and SiO/ITO NML films are marked with dashed curves (a) and (b), with thickness ratios of 2.5:1 (TiO:ITO) and 1.3:1 (SiO:ITO), and resistivities of 1.18 × 10−3 and 1.41 × 10−3 Ω·cm, respectively.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Investigation of nanostructured transparent conductive films grown by rotational-sequential-sputtering