SEM micrographs of Pb thin films grown at different substrate temperatures: (a) 30 °C, (b) 90 °C, (c) 130 °C, (d) 160 °C, (e) 230 °C, and (f) 260 °C.
SEM micrograph of Pb thin films grown at 30 °C and postannealed at 260 °C.
Size distribution histograms of the spherical shape grains obtained analyzing the SEM images of Pb thin films at (a) 160 °C, (b) 230 °C, and (c) 260 °C. The continuous line represents the best fit of the histograms by Eq. (1) .
XRD patterns of the polycrystalline Pb thin films at different substrate temperatures: (a) 30 °C, (b) 90 °C, (c) 130 °C, (d) 160 °C, (e) 230 °C, and (f) 260 °C. The peaks indicated by a black dot (●) could be ascribed to lead silicates while the asterisk (*) indicates the Pb (111) and Pb (200) peaks whose relative intensities change based on the substrate temperature.
Arrhenius plot of I Pb (hkl)/I Pb (111) XRD intensity for Pb (200), Pb (220), and Pb (311) peaks. The dashed line corresponds to the data fit of I Pb (200)/I Pb (111), which gives an activation energy of Ea = (0.43 ± 0.04) eV.
Average grain size, D 0, and grain density, δ, values obtained by the best fit of Eq. (1) of size distribution histograms at substrate temperatures of 160, 230, and 260 °C.
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