Schematic view of the microplanar reactor (Ref. 92 ). Reprinted with permission from Schlemm and Roth, Surf. Coat. Technol. 142–144, 272 (2001). Copyright 2013, Elsevier S. A.
Scheme of the deposition and sterilization setup (Ref. 93 ). Reprinted with permission from Baars-Hibbe et al., Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 519 (2003). Copyright 2013, Elsevier S. A.
Atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge reactor. Upper RF electrode: diffusion electrode (ϕ 40 mm), bottom GND electrode: resistive heater (ϕ 60 mm), background pressure: 10−2 Torr, capacity: 10 l, RF: RF power source, MB: matching circuit, OSC: digital oscilloscope (Ref. 94 ). Reprinted with permission from Nozaki et al., J. Appl. Phys. 99, 024310 (2006). Copyright 2013, American Institute of Physics.
Kinetic energies and oscillation amplitudes of electrons and He ions as a function of pressure. The calculation assumed binary collisions between the charged particle (electron or ion) and neutral He atoms in a uniform plasma without electrodes. Steady-state solutions were considered for two frequencies of the electric field (13.56 and 150 MHz): E = E 0 exp(jωt), where E 0 is set to be 2 × 105 V/m, ω is the angular frequency of the electric field, and j is the imaginary unit, j = (−1)½.
Electron density of AP He plasma as a function of power density (Ref. 15 ).
Time- and space-resolved images of He plasma generated at p = 1 × 105 Pa with a VHF power density of 200 W/cm3 using (a) bare aluminum and (b) alumina-coated electrodes. The gap spacing is 3 mm.
(a) Spatial distribution of the emission and its intensity profile of AP He plasma generated at p = 1 × 105 Pa. (b)–(e) Time- and space-resolved images of He plasma as a function of pressure. For both observations, bare aluminum electrodes were used and the VHF power density was 500 W/cm3.
Sheath width versus pressure calculated using Eq. (3) .
Deposition rate dependences of σ ph and σ d of the a-Si films (Ref. 17 ). The deposition conditions were varied over a wide range [SiH4: 0.1–1%, H2: 0.1–50%, electrode rotation speed: 500–5000 rpm, and substrate temperature (T sub): 160–280 °C]. The VHF power was varied in a certain range around the optimum value for each condition. The substrate moving speed was varied depending on the conditions.
Distribution of cell performance in the gas flow direction.
H2/SiH4 ratio dependences of the (a) deposition rate and (b) crystalline volume fraction I C RS of the Si films deposited on glass substrates (Ref. 18 ).
Deposition rate dependence of the dark conductivity of the μc-Si films prepared in the following conditions: VHF power density of 6–24 W/cm2 (open triangles), H2/SiH4 ratio of 0–10 (solid circles), and plasma gap of 0.4–0.7 mm (open squares) (Ref. 18 ).
Cross sectional TEM images of epitaxial Si films grown by AP-PECVD with 22 W/cm2 (Ref. 19 ).
SIMS depth profiles of O and C concentrations in epitaxial Si films grown at 570 °C (Ref. 19 ). H2 plasma cleaning conditions (VHF power, cleaning time) are (a) 22 W/cm2, 20 s, (b) 22 W/cm2, 140 s, and (c) 40 W/cm2, 160 s.
Schematic illustration of AP plasma enhanced chemical transport APECT for formation of poly-Si film (Ref. 134 ).
Etching rates of Si, Fe, B, and GaAs by H2 plasma as a function of temperature (Ref. 144 ). Etching rate of Fe is negligible.
Inner walls of deposition chambers after 1000 repetitions of depositing a 2 μm-thick Si film (100 × 100 cm2). Insets shows inner walls of exhaust pipes. (a) APECT process and (b) PECVD process.
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