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Thermal outgassing rates of low-carbon steels
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Outgassing rates of three low-carbon steels were measured using rate-of-rise and throughput methods. Outgassing rates of water vapor during pump-down were higher than those of stainless steels, probably due to the nature of native surface oxide layer. However, hydrogen outgassing rates without a high temperature pretreatment were as low as (1–4) × 10−10 Pa m3 s−1 m−2, which is much lower than that of untreated stainless steels. No dramatic reduction was observed in H2 outgassing after vacuum annealing at 850 °C for 12 h, suggesting that the low-carbon steels had been fully degassed during the steelmaking processes. This may be due to the use of the Ruhrstahl-Hausen vacuum process during steel refining instead of an older process, such as argon-oxygen decarburization. The extremely low H2 outgassing rate from low-carbon steels makes them applicable for use in ultrahigh vacuum or even extreme high vacuum applications, particularly where magnetic field shielding is needed.
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