Volume 34, Issue 1, January 2016
Index of content:
- Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
Thermal chemistry of copper acetamidinate atomic layer deposition precursors on silicon oxide surfaces studied by XPS34(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.4927843View Description Hide Description
The thermal surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N′-di-sec-butylacetamidinate, [Cu( sBu-amd)]2, a metalorganic complex recently proposed for the chemical-based deposition of copper films, has been characterized on SiO2 films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Initial adsorption at cryogenic temperatures results in the oxidation of the copper centers with Cu 2p3/2 XPS binding energies close to those seen for a +2 oxidation state, an observation that the authors interpret as the result of the additional coordination of oxygen atoms from the surface to the Cu atoms of the molecular acetamidinate dimer. Either heating to 300 K or dosing the precursor directly at that temperature leads to the loss of one of its two ligands, presumably via hydrogenation/protonation with a hydrogen/proton from a silanol group, or following a similar reaction on a defect site. By approximately 500 K the Cu 2p3/2, C 1s, and N 1s XPS data suggest that the remaining acetamidinate ligand is displaced from the copper center and bonds to the silicon oxide directly, after which temperatures above 900 K need to be reached to promote further (and only partial) decomposition of those organic moieties. It was also shown that the uptake of the Cu precursor is self-limiting at either 300 or 500 K, although the initial chemistry is somewhat different at the two temperatures, and that the nature of the substrate also defines reactivity, with the thin native silicon oxide layer always present on Si(100) surfaces being less reactive than thicker films grown by evaporation, presumably because of the lower density of surface nucleation sites.