Full text loading...
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Power spectral densities: A multiple technique study of different Si wafer surfaces
1.J. M. Bennett, Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1119 (1992).
2.W. M. Bullis, “Characterizing microroughness and haze on silicon wafers,” MICRO, 47 (Jan. 1996).
3.T. Abe, E. F. Steigmeier, W. Hagleitner, and A. J. Pidduck, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 721 (1992).
4.T. V. Vorburger, E. Marx, and T. R. Lettieri, Appl. Opt. 32, 3401 (1993).
5.I. J. Malik, S. Pirooz, L. W. Shive, A. J. Davenport, and C. M. Vitus, J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, L75 (1993).
6.J. R. McNeil, L. J. Wei, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. Shakir, and J. K. McIver, Appl. Opt. 24, 480 (1985).
7.P. O. Hahn and M. Kerstan, Surface Measurement and Characterization, SPIE Vol. 1009 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1988), p. 172.
8.A. C. Diebold and B. Doris, Surf. Interface Anal. 20, 127 (1993).
9.E. Hartman, P. O. Hahn, and R. J. Behm, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 4273 (1991).
10.T. C. Bristow and K. Arackellian, Metrology: Figure and Finish, SPIE Vol. 749 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1987), p. 114.
11.W. M. Bullis, Semiconductor Silicon/1994, p. 1156, The Electrochemical Society, PV 94-10, Pennington, NJ, 1994.
12.P. Dumas, B. Bouffakhreddine, C. Amra, O. Vatel, E. Andre, R. Galindo, and F. Salvan, Europhys. Lett. 22, 717 (1993).
13.E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
14.M. J. Verkerk and I. J. M. M. Raaymakers, Appl. Opt. 25, 3602 (1986).
15.M. M. Heyns, Microcontamination 9, 29, 87 (1991).
16.M. Noguchi and Y. Kembo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 32, 352 (1993).
17.T. Ohmi, K. Kotani, A. Teramoto, and M. Miyashita, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 652 (1991).
18.P. O. Hahn, S. Yokohama, and M. Henzler, Surf. Sci. 142, 545 (1984).
19.C. H. Bjorkman, T. Yasuda, C. E. Shearon, Jr., Y. Ma, G. Lucovsky, U. Emmerichs, C. Meyer, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 1521 (1993).
20.J. Motohisa and H. Sakaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1315 (1992).
21.M. Meuris, S. Verhaverbeke, P. W. Mertens, M. M. Heyns, L. Hellemans, Y. Bruynserade, and A. Philipossian, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 31, L1514 (1992).
22.H. Többen, G. Ringel, F. Kratz, and D.-R. Schmitt, Specification, Production, and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, SPIE Vol. 2775 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1996), p. 240.
23.E. L. Church and P. Z. Takacs, Appl. Opt. 32, 3344 (1993).
24.E. J. Bawolek, J. B. Mohr, E. D. Hirleman, and A. Majumdar, Appl. Opt. 32, 3377 (1993).
25.D. Ronnow, M. Bergkvist, A. Roos, and C.-G. Ribbing, Appl. Opt. 32, 3448 (1993).
26.B. W. Scheer, MICRO, 63 (June 1996).
27.J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1995).
28.I. J. Malik, K. Vepa, S. Pirooz, A. C. Martin, and L. W. Shive, Semiconductor Silicon/1994, PV 94-10 (The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1994), p. 1182.
29.R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, and L. Mattson, Appl. Opt. 31, 1426 (1992).
30.J. E. Griffith, D. A. Grigg, M. J. Vasile, P. E. Russell, and E. A. Fitzgerald, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 674 (1992).
31.T. Ohmi and S. Aoyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2479 (1992).
32.W. K. Wong, D. Wang, and R. T. Benoit, Optical Scatter: Applications, Measurement, and Theory, SPIE Vol. 1530 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1991), p. 86.
33.E. L. Church, Appl. Opt. 27, 1518(SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1988).
34.ASME B46.1-1995 Surface Texture (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995).
35.K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, and H. Zahouani, The Development of Methods for the Characterisation of Roughness in Three Dimensions (University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 1993).
36.E. Marx, I. J. Malik, Y. E. Strausser, T. Bristow, N. Poduje, and J. C. Stover, Flatness, Roughness, and Discrete Defects Characterization for Computer Disks, Wafers, and Flat Panel Displays II, SPIE Vol. 3275 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1998), p. 26.
37.E. Marx, I. J. Malik, T. Bristow, N. Poduje, and J. C. Stover, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology 2000, edited by D. G. Seiler, A. C. Diebold, T. J. Shaffner, R. McDonald, W. M. Bullis, P. J. Smith, and E. M. Secula, AIP Conference Proceedings 550 (AIP, Melville, NY, 2001), pp. 201–206.
38.F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monograph 160 (1977).
39.A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, Appl. Opt. 41, 154 (2002).
40.We use the bar over the S to distinguish between the two mathematically different forms of the 2-D PSD. In general, we use such marks to distinguish between pairs of different functions with similar meanings.
41.See Ref. 27, p. 85 ff.
42.E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, and T. A. Leonard, Scatter from Optical Components, SPIE Vol. 1165 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1989), p. 136.
43.E. L. Church and P. Z. Takacs, Optical Scatter, SPIE Vol. 1530 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1991), p. 71.
44.A. G. Brandstein and E. Marx, Numerical Fourier Transform, HDL-TR-1748, Harry Diamond Laboratories (September 1976).
45.This figure differs from the one shown in Ref. 37 because we have corrected the scaling factors, which causes a shift in the curves, and we have now averaged over 40 profiles.
46.The PSDs in Figs. 7–9 in Ref. 37 were misaligned because the z-scale factor from the header for the AFM data taken on samples I, J, and K was recorded in a manner different from the rest. This difference in the header was previously unrecognized.
47.These spikes sometimes correspond to smaller spikes at the same frequency in the average PSD of profiles perpendicular to the scan direction. They might be related to the horizontal lines that appear in the scan direction in the images, most noticeably in the same samples H, I, and L.
48.ASTM F 1811-97, Standard Practice for Estimating the Power Spectral Density Function and Related Finish Parameters from Surface Profile Data (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1997).
Article metrics loading...