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Rigorous coupled wave analysis of front-end-of-line wafer alignment marks
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10.1116/1.1843824
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/23/1/10.1116/1.1843824
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/23/1/10.1116/1.1843824

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Normal grating of wafer alignment marks with equal width of lines and spaces, i.e., 8 μm.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Geometry of the mark structure in diffraction problem.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Cross sectional view of FEOL wafer alignment marks on silicon substrate. (b) Trenches of the gratings are filled up with silicon dioxide.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Near field reflected amplitude for different grating depth. The profile is constructed from negative first reflected diffraction order to positive first reflected diffraction order, which includes zeroth order. The incident field is TE polarized and has an amplitude of 1.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Reflected diffraction efficiency of normal mark (a) TE and (b) TM polarization using 633 nm alignment wavelength.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Reflected diffraction efficiency of normal mark (a) TE and (b) TM across various grating depths using 633 nm alignment wavelength.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Higher frequency signal is achieved when higher order reflected beams are collected.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) Cross sectional view of fifth order marks, with equal lines and spaces of 1.6 μm gratings incorporated into the 16 μm normal grating. (b) Plane view of fifth order marks (c). Trenches of the gratings are filled up with silicon dioxide.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Reflected diffraction efficiency at grating depth of 3900 Å (a) TE and (b) TM polarization for third, fifth, and seventh order marks. Local peaks are found at the order numbers of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 5, 10, 15 for third and fifth order marks, respectively. For seventh order marks, local peaks are found at the order number of 7 and 14.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Zeroth and the respective enhanced order reflected diffraction efficiency of third, fifth, and seventh order marks for (a) TE and (b) TM polarization using 633 nm alignment wavelength. Number in the brackets indicates order of the mark.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Distribution of diffraction efficiency for fifth order marks.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Zeroth and the respective enhanced order reflected diffraction efficiency of third, fifth, and seventh order marks for (a) TE and (b) TM polarization using 532 nm alignment wavelength. Number in the brackets indicates order of the mark.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Maximum, minimum, and average shift in terms of translation in (a) and (b) direction.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Overlay of polysilicon across all the wafers in Lots A and B.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Refractive index of BARC at two different wavelengths.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Dimensions of small periodic gratings to enhance the respective reflected order of -periodic gratings.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Summary of Lots A and B.

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/content/avs/journal/jvstb/23/1/10.1116/1.1843824
2005-01-07
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Rigorous coupled wave analysis of front-end-of-line wafer alignment marks
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/23/1/10.1116/1.1843824
10.1116/1.1843824
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