Comparative study of polycrystalline Ti, amorphous Ti, and multiamorphous Ti as a barrier film for Cu interconnect
X-ray diffraction pattern of as-deposited PVD-Ti, CVD-Ti, and films.
Cross-sectional STEM micrographs of PVD-Ti.
Cross-sectional STEM micrographs of (a) CVD-Ti and (b) plasma-treated Ti films.
Resistivity of film as a function of plasma-treatment time.
Variation in sheet resistance of Cu/barrier/Si as a function of annealing temperature.
XRD spectra of Cu/barrier/Si samples after annealing at (a) 500, (b) 600, and (c) 650 and , respectively.
SEM micrograph of -annealed sample. Cu film is stripped after annealing.
Variation in leakage current density of Cu/barrier/Si as a function of annealing temperature.
Cross-sectional TEM micrographs of (a) -annealed , (b) -annealed , (c) -annealed , and (d) high-resolution TEM image of the annealed .
Schematic illustrations of the microstructure of (a) , (b) and, (c) samples before and after annealing.
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