Schematic comparison of: (a) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and (b) atomic force microscope (AFM).
Nanostructures fabricated by liftoff using STML patterning of PMMA resist subsequently with Au–Pd deposition: (a) Au–Pd line with thickness and width adopting beam with (negative polarity at tip) and writing speed in resist patterning; (b) thick Au–Pd thin-film resistor having less than width at narrowest region using tip-positive polarity pulse for patterning (after Ref. 7).
Nano-Pt structures on Si substrate by direct STML deposition: (a) dot array, each dot deposited with 50 consecutive pulses at negative pulse, set current, and duration time, where the average dot height and width are 4 and , respectively; (b) four lines drawn by pulse with different set current and pulse durations, and for lines 1 and 2, and for line 3, and and for line 4 (after Ref. 15).
Nanostructures on Si substrates by direct STML deposition of sequential dots: (a) STM image of Ag characters “A” by Ag-coated tip (courtesy of Daisuke Fujita of National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) and (b) AFM image of Au lines by Au-coated tip (courtesy of H. Abed of Faculté des Sciences de Luminy, France).
Nanostructures deposited by STM-induced CVD process: (a) AFM image of spot-shaped Si nanostructure of in FWHM diameter and in height deposited on Si(111) using precursor gas at (after Ref. 19); (b) STM image of Fe-based magnetic nanowires deposited on Ag (100) substrate using precursor ferrocene gas (the image size is and the upper right half circle is also a fabricated feature); and (c) wire profile along the thick white line shown in panel (b) indicating three fine wires and one thick wire (after Ref. 21).
Material removing by STM induced thermal decomposition: (a) schematic of decomposition of layer by an STM tip with negative bias and (b) concentric ring pattern with a minimum linewidth of fabricated by STM tip scanning using computer controller (courtesy of Hiroshi Iwasaki of Osaka University, Japan).
STM images of quantum corral nanostructure (diameter ) composed of 36 Ag atoms (white protrusions) on Ag(111): (a) during construction and (b) after completion of the corral (after Ref. 39).
SEM images of line-and-space patterns generated by AFML in negative resist RD2100N on -type Si(100) substrate showing the minimum linewidths of: (a) 27, (b) 55, and (c) for resist thicknesses of 15, 40, and , respectively (after Ref. 52).
Thermomechanical writing by AFM: (a) AFM image of sub- dot array written on polycarbonate using electrically heated sharp-cantilever tip with , pulses (after Ref. 55) and (b) schematic of IBM Millipede (courtesy of IBM).
AFM tip-induced Si oxidation structures patterned on Si substrate with applied dc voltage from and pulse using scanning rate of at 60% ambient humidity: (a) AFM image (left) and corresponding profile (right) of line pattern and (b) AFM image (left) and profile (right) of dot pattern (after Ref. 59).
AFM images of AFM-tip induced Si oxidation lines on -type- Si substrate: (a) linewidth induced at 61% ambient humidity and (b) linewidth induced at 14% humidity (courtesy of IBM).
SEM image of active region of side-gated Si field-effect transistor patterned by local oxidation of Si which acts as masks for subsequent selective etching of Si substrate; the width of source–drain channel (vertical line in picture) is and gate approaches from the left (after Ref. 68).
Oxide tunneling barriers fabricated by AFML for single-electron transistor: (a) AFM image of an island between source and drain defined by two oxide lines (light lines, wide), where mechanically machined gates are located at the sides of the island (dark lines) and (b) gray-scale plot of absolute value of source–drain current as a function of bias and gate voltage at (black: ; white: ), showing the signature of single-electron transport: Coulomb-blockade diamonds (after Ref. 69).
AFM images of the electrochemical deposition of epitaxial Cu on a Cu(110) substrate: (a) Cu(110) surface prior to deposition; (b) mesa is developed with a height of after a potential of is applied for ; (c) “truncated cone” with a height of is developed for additional ; and (d) additional nucleation and growth for further scanning the whole area about (after Ref. 78).
AFM images of electrochemically induced Ag patterns on : (a) each dot generated by a pulse of and with in height and in diameter and (b) each dot generated by a pulse of and with in height and in diameter (after Ref. 79).
AFM images of electrochemically induced carbonaceous lines on Au surface with a width of 80, 180, and produced by constant voltages of , , and respectively (after Ref. 80).
Three long grooves scribed on InAs substrate: (a) AFM image and (b) profile of grooves showing in width and in depth and indicating that the deepest groove is just to penetrate through GaSb into InAs (after Ref. 81).
Square pattern with groove size of wide and deep scratched by a V-shaped tip in cleaved mica substrate (after Ref. 89).
DPN: (a) schematic of DPN: a tip coated with “ink” molecules being contact with substrate and (b) LFM image of 1-octadecanethiol grid written by DPN with force at 42% relative humidity, where each line is long and less than wide (after Ref. 93).
Comparison of SPM-based techniques.
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