Modeling radiation-induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics
Optical layout of the engineering test stand (ETS).
Adsorption, diffusion, and dissociation of large parent hydrocarbons into a graphitic-like, but partially hydrogenated, layer by EUV radiation or secondary electrons.
Overview of contamination model showing processes included in the hydrocarbon cracking module (left) and the hydrocarbon transport module (right).
Various transport phenomena leading to a contamination layer.
Cylindrical domain used for the surface diffusion calculation.
Residual gas analysis (RGA) scans of (a) ALS experiment chamber with neoprene outgassing source, (b) contaminated ETS main chamber, and (c) typical uncontaminated ETS main chamber.
Experimentally observed carbon film thickness for ALS experiments.
Observed and predicted secondary electron yield as a function of carbon layer thickness.
Calculated residence times for -alkane hydrocarbons at .
Model prediction vs experimental data—excluding the effects of surface diffusion.
Calculated (Ref. 33) surface diffusion coefficients for -alkane hydrocarbons on Au.
Model prediction of pressure and dose dependence on carbon thickness for an exposure.
Estimated carbon thickness for after an exposure at the specified pressure and intensity.
Predicted carbon thickness as a function of molecular weight.
Predicted radial profile of a carbon deposition spot with diffusion at ten times the nominal value for a -alkane.
Predicted carbon thickness as a function of temperature for selected -alkanes at the conditions indicated.
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