SEM of contact holes nominally square in KRS resist exposed with electrons. The required dose is on more than twice that needed to clear large areas.
Plot of fraction of contact holes opened as a function of the average number of exposing electrons/hole. Note that about 4500 electrons are needed independent of resist thickness for hole size in the range of on a side.
SEM of partially developed line showing what appears to be a surface layer acting as a partial barrier to development.
SEM of a developed Shipley UVII-HS resist line illustrating both linewidth variation and line-edge roughness (Ref. 24).
Model of the effect of fracturing during the development of resist. The exposure and reaction generates polar inhomogeneities, the polar developer penetrates and causes local stress, and the fracture follows the path of least resistance.
Energy required to generate one acid under exposure with photons and photons and electron exposure and the acid (or ionization) density at this energy density (see text).
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