Evidence for internal stresses induced by nanoimprint lithography
Time dependence of the different trapezoid parameters is shown while annealing the PMMA patterns at approximately . Part (A) shows the decrease in both the pattern height (open symbols) and volume of material in the patterns (closed symbols) derived from the scattering intensity. Parts (B) and (C) show the corresponding increase in the width and sidewall angle over the same period. Part (D) compares the rate of change for (heavy solid line) and the different ’s (thin lines) for by taking the derivative of the arbitrary smooth functions fit to the experimental data in parts (A) and (B). The error bars indicate the standard uncertainty of the different trapezoid shape parameters.
Changes in the average trapezoid width are shown as a function of annealing time at approximately for both (open symbols) and (filled symbols) PMMA. The rate of change is faster in the higher molecular mass PMMA, the opposite of what would be predicted by surface tension and viscosity. The error bars indicate the standard uncertainty in the pattern widths and the lines are arbitrary fits drawn to guide the reader’s eyes.
Parts (A) and (B) shows the changes in the pattern cross sections as a function of annealing time at approximately for a PS in both the “unrelaxed” and “relaxed” samples, respectively. The estimated standard uncertainty in the profile dimensions is approximately . Part (C) emphasizes the changes in the pattern height and the residual layer thickness, illustrating that the dimensions change more quickly in the the unrelaxed state. Error bars indicate the standard uncertainty in the heights.
Changes in pattern cross section are shown as a function of annealing time at for the Nanonex 1020 commercial imprint resin. Notice how the pattern decreases in height more dramatically than it broadens in width, especially for the shorter annealing times. The estimated standard uncertainty in the profile dimensions is approximately .
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