Schematic representation of the graph-paper lithography process. A lithographic pattern is written at twice the final pitch; a self-aligned spatial-frequency doubling technique is used to produce a large-area pattern at the desired small pitch, and a lithography tool with the same resolution as the initial grating is used to personalize the grating to produce the final lithographic pattern.
wide photoresist lines on an pitch using water immersion interferometric lithography.
Schematic of the self-aligned spatial-frequency doubling process sequence using KOH etching.
SEM of a pattern produced in silicon using the self-aligned spatial-frequency doubling process.
SEM of a region near a defect in the lithographic pattern. Note the smooth sidewalls of the larger KOH-etched V grooves along with a comparable roughness of the top layers for all three observed V-groove dimensions.
Schematic process flow for an alternative, manufacturing-friendly, self-aligned frequency-doubling scheme similar to traditional gate sidewall passivation processes.
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