Scanning electron micrographs of (a) a multicantilever probe with minimum electrode pitch of and (b) a pitch four-point probe with L-shaped static contact cantilevers.
sheet resistance line scan perpendicular to the laser scan direction using a pitch four-point probe and a step size of . The vertical lines define the area which was consecutively probed with different probe pitches (cf. Fig. 3). A continuous function of the sheet resistance was approximated (thin line) for finite element method (FEM) simulations (cf. Fig. 9).
Raw data of a line scan with step size repeated at the same location with various pitched four-point probes to compare macro and micro sheet resistances. Only selected electrode pitch results are shown for easy comparison.
Comparison of the relative standard deviation and relative peak-to-peak variation of the sheet resistance measured with different electrode pitches for (a) [cf. Fig. 5(a)] and (b) [cf. Fig. 5(b)].
Selected electrode pitch and line segment of the line scan in Fig. 3. A line segment was chosen to represent the two main periodic variations of (a) and (b) .
point area scan measured with a pitch M4PP. The scan step sizes are 50 and in the and directions, respectively. Raw data are represented by dots.
Illustration of three independent four-point configurations, (a) A, (b), B and (c) C configurations.
Contour plots of the sensitivity to resistance variations for an in-line four-point probe in the A, C, and dual configuration modes, (a), (b), and (c), respectively. The four contacts are positioned at , (1,0), (2,0), and (3,0). The sensitivity goes to at the contact points for the A and C configurations; however, the color scale has been cut off (at ) to see the surrounding contour. The color scale has not been cut off for the dual configuration contour plot.
Comparison of A, C, and dual configurations, (a), (b), and (c), respectively, for a pitch four-point probe on a nonhomogeneous USJ. The thin line represents the surface sheet resistance as defined for the FEM simulations (which corresponds to the sheet resistance measured with a pitch M4PP). The thick line is the FEM simulated result and the cross represents the experimentally measured result (raw data).
Specifications of four-point probes used in this work.
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