Multilevel visualization of local electric field at probe apex using scanning electron microscopy
Schematic illustration of visualization system.
Visualized field image taken in STEM mode [(a) and (c)] and in SEM mode [(b) and (d)].
Series of field visualizations with biases of (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , and (e) .
FEM simulation results based on cylindrical coordinates, where the local electric field is basically parallel to the probe surface (a), but the directional cosine component extracted from (a) exhibits a circular contour, which agrees well with the experiments.
Details of (a) ring image and (b) grid image. These images have a Gaussian distribution in their pixel intensity profiles. Thus the ring and grid positions are defined by the position that has the half maximum of the ring and grid brightness.
Local field intensity distribution for FEM simulation denoted by red squares, Rutherford scattering denoted by blue triangles, and point charge model denoted by yellow diamonds.
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