Fabrication of metallic nanoslit waveguides with sharp bends
Layout of a prototypical metallic nanoslit waveguide used for process validity verification. The details of the waveguide sections with right-angle bends (zigzag or U-turn structures), which are part of the nanoslit but not displayed in the three-dimensional illustration, are shown in the inserts.
Metallic nanoslit waveguide fabrication process (starting from step 3, only the objects inside the plating seed area are illustrated).
Snapshots of the 100-nm-wide U-turn slit waveguide (100 nm spacing) patterns taken from JEOL e-beam lithography tool pattern check software, showing the actual pattern fracturing results for proximity effect correction. Each color in the pattern stands for a certain exposure dose rank, as labeled on the scale bar (dose rank number is not proportional to the actual dose). Left: U-turn pattern was fractured by the proximity effect correction software LAYOUT BEAMER from GenISys GmbH. Right: U-turn pattern was manually fractured for proximity effect correction.
SEM micrographs of the HSQ core for a metallic nanoslit waveguide. Right: Low magnification image of the HSQ core of a waveguide section with multiple right-angle bends. Left: High magnification image of a section of HSQ core with the U-turn structure.
Images for the sample before the electroplating process. Upper right: Photograph of a test wafer after removing the titanium adhesion promoter layer. The rainbow patterns are SU-8 strip waveguides. Left: SEM micrograph of three waveguides. Lower right: High magnification SEM micrograph of the joint part of HSQ nanoslit core, HSQ taper coupler core and SU-8 strip waveguide.
SEM micrograph of a section of plated nanoslit waveguide with a U-turn structure.
SEM micrograph of the cross section of a plated nanoslit waveguide at a U-turn section.
FDTD-simulated guided mode at in a 100-nm-wide gold slit waveguide filled with a core. The color represents the intensity of the electromagnetic field. The profile of the waveguide cross-section structure is denoted with the black lines.
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