(Color online) Topography (left) and current (right) images of ZnO:N films with substrate temperatures of (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , and (e) . The sample was biased at and the tip was grounded.
Variations of the rms roughness values analyzed from the topography image (measured by AFM scanning of a area) as a function of the substrate temperatures.
(Color online) Typical curves obtained using different contact currents in current image of Fig. 1(c). The dotted lines represent experimental data and the solid lines are fitted data. (a) O1, O2, and O3 correspond to the Ohmic contact fitting at a contact current of over . (b) S1, S2, and S3 correspond to Schottky emission fitting at contact currents of between 50 and , and F1 corresponds to Fowler–Nordheim tunneling fitting at a contact current of under .
(Color online) Histograms of current distribution for the five current images in Fig. 1.
(Color online) Images of (a), (b), and (c) correspond to the current images of Figs. 1(b)–1(d), respectively. The red and yellow spots indicate the -type and -type carrier regions on ZnO:N surface, respectively. The green areas belong to the nonconducting regions.
XPS measurements for ZnO:N films with different substrate temperatures.
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