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Uniformity conditioning of diamond field emitter arrays
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SEM micrographs of a DFEA; wide view (left) and tip detail (right).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic of the close-diode conditioning arrangement. Anode-cathode gap is typically , and the applied potential of .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Detail of beams from individual DFEA tips. Each beam comprises multiple beamlets from adsorbed species that fluctuate due to adsorbate diffusion and adsorption/desorption. The tips are laid out on a square grid with a pitch.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Uniformity improvement for a array following a VTEC treatment. The active emitter fraction increased from (left) to (right). Intensity values have been inverted for clarity.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Uniformity improvement for a array following a VTEC treatment. Left (before); right (after).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Typical emission current behavior during a VTEC treatment. The temperature equilibrated to a maximum value of after .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Emission uniformity progression during HCC of a DFEA. Images were taken at progressively higher fields, ending at . The uppermost tip was malformed during fabrication and not expected to emit.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

DFEA nanotips before (top) and after (bottom) HCC up to per tip. Tips are noticeably shorter with increased tip radii.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

DFEA emission images before (left) and after (right) HCC. The histogram was generated by binning the integrated intensity of each beamlet.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

HCC progression for a ungated DFEA. No significant emission uniformity changes are noted until an average per-tip current of .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Typical morphology evolution of a DFEA emitter during the HCC process.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Roughly uniform distribution of backsputtered anode material on the cathode surface following moderate current operation.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Self-correction of fabrication and postprocessing defects during HCC. The top and bottom are separate tips, and the conditioning progression moves left to right.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Tips from a pitch ungated DFEA before (four tips on left) and after (four tips on right) HCC and back bombardment damage. The before and after pictures are not of the same emitters but are representative of the array.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Uniformity conditioning of diamond field emitter arrays