Review of electrical characterization of ultra-shallow junctions with micro four-point probes
Micrograph of a M4PP with integrated strain gauge sensor. The insert shows a magnified image of the four cantilevers with an electrode pitch of .
configuration. The four probe pins (Nos. 1–4) have position vectors , , , and .
(Color online) Sensitivity of the dual configuration sheet resistance measurement to local sheet resistance variations; adapted from Ref. 6. The four electrodes are positioned at , , (0.5, 0), and (1.5, 0).
(Color online) Sheet resistance non-uniformity measured with electrode pitch ranging from . The characteristic length scale of sheet resistance variations is . Data adapted from Ref. 6.
(Color online) point area scan measured with a pitch M4PP. Periodic variations due to the laser anneal process are clearly visible in both the and directions. Adapted from Ref. 6.
Laser annealed B implant in Si. (a) Collected results comparing the micro Hall effect method to other techniques (Refs. 9 and 29). (b) Activation degree and mobility as a function of the number of laser anneals for an implanted dose of (adapted from Ref. 29).
(Color online) Scanning micro Hall effect of a silicon sample with a , B implant annealed in a single pass by an wide laser beam. Values are each normalized by their respective average. The variations in sheet conductance and dopant activation correlate while carrier mobility is almost constant with a slight increase at the outer boundaries of the scanned area (adapted from Ref. 20).
Carrier concentration of a structure extracted from M4PP and SRP carrier profiling is compared to the dopant concentration measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Reprinted from Ref. 32. Copyright (2008), American Vacuum Society.
(Color online) point sheet conductance scan of a beveled junction Ge sample. The color scale show deviations from the average profile which are related to the surface roughness. The insert shows a schematic illustration of a M4PP measuring on a bevel sample.
Six possible four-point probe configurations and the geometrical correction factors used to obtain the sheet resistance from a single four-point resistance measurement on an infinite, thin sample.
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