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Photo- and thermionic emission from potassium-intercalated carbon nanotube arrays
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10.1116/1.3368466
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/2/10.1116/1.3368466
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/2/10.1116/1.3368466
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Predicted electron EEDs for pure thermionic emission [Eq. (1)] and for two simple photoemission models. One photoemission model [Eq. (4)] assumes that all of the photon energy is converted into “normal energy” while the other photoemission model (Ref. 9) assumes that has an equal probability of being absorbed as kinetic energy in any direction. All curves are normalized to facilitate comparison: and .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) Tilted cross-sectional FESEM showing the PAA surface with SWCNTs extending from pores. (b) FESEM of the area in the yellow box in (a). White material in the bottom of the pores is palladium and provides electrical contact to the SWCNTs. The inset shows a Pd-contacted SWCNT in a PAA pore. Scale bar is in (a) and 200 nm in (b).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

FESEM images of K/MWCNTs, showing metal, presumably potassium, inside individual MWCNTs. Scale bars are 500 nm, , and 100 nm, in (a), (b), and (c), respectively.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

X-ray photoemission intensity of a K/MWCNT sample as a function of binding energy at temperatures of 300 and 570 K. XPS data were obtained by Zemlyanov of the Surface Analysis Laboratory, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Schematic of hemispherical energy analyzer and vacuum system used to measure energy distributions of emission electrons. Labels have the following meanings: (a) incident laser, (b) electron multiplier, (c) pyrometer temperature probe, (d) movable metal plate, (e) direct-current voltage supply , and (f) sample heater.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Normalized EED data from single-crystal tungsten (100) at approximately 1140 K. The work function of tungsten (100) is known to be approximately 4.56 eV, indicating that the analyzer’s work function is 3.98 eV.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) (a) EEDs from a K/SWCNT/PAA sample showing effects of electron pass energy and laser illumination. (b) Normalized data curves from (a). Data with laser shuttered are not shown in (b) because they are dominated by noise. Theoretical EEDs based on thermionic emission [Eq. (1), solid line] and photoemission [Eq. (4), dashed line] assuming are included in (b) for comparison: and .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Thermionic and laser-assisted EEDs from the same K/SWCNT/PAA sample featured in Fig. 7. In (a) the EED magnitudes have been adjusted to account for the energy analyzer’s settings and in (b) the EEDs have been normalized and theoretical fits based on Eq. (1) have been included. Data in (a) dominated by background noise are not shown in (b); .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Thermionic and laser-assisted EEDs from a potassium-intercalated multiwalled CNT (K/MWCNT) sample. In (a) the EED magnitudes have been adjusted to account for the energy analyzer’s settings and in (b) the EEDs have been normalized and theoretical fits included based on Eq. (1). Data in (a) dominated by background noise are not shown in (b): .

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2010-03-31
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Photo- and thermionic emission from potassium-intercalated carbon nanotube arrays
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/2/10.1116/1.3368466
10.1116/1.3368466
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