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Photoresist modifications by plasma vacuum ultraviolet radiation: The role of polymer structure and plasma chemistry
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10.1116/1.3484249
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/5/10.1116/1.3484249
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/5/10.1116/1.3484249

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) High resolution XPS spectra before and after 300 s plasma exposure to an Ar discharge using the glass and filters together with corresponding difference spectra: (a) and (b) spectra of 193 nm PR and (c) and (d) spectra of 248 nm PR.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Time evolution of calculated O/C atomic ratios and oxygen content based on XPS surface characterization: [(a) and (b)] 193 nm PR and [(c) and (d)] 248 nm PR, respectively. The O/C atomic ratios for the PR surface are estimated by integrated area ratios of the and spectra applying characteristic sensitivity factors. The oxygen content presented gives the relative composition of the PR surface as estimated by deconvolution of the spectra for individual bond contributions.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) FTIR spectra of region , region , and and region before and after 300 s plasma exposure to an Ar discharge using the glass and filters together with corresponding difference spectra: (a) 193 nm PR and (b) 248 nm PR.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Time evolution of , , and and absorbance loss based on integrated area analysis of FTIR spectra of (a) 193 nm PR and (b) 248 nm PR.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Detailed observation of radiation-induced changes in the bond region of 193 nm PR [Fig. 4(a)] for three characteristic regions accounting for ester, attached lactone, and free lactone. The detached lactone effectively removed from the film, i.e., the difference of free lactone and attached lactone loss, is presented as lactone.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Correlation of film thickness reduction as estimated by ellipsometric measurements and bulk material modifications of 193 nm PR and 248 nm PR as observed by FTIR. Thickness reduction is directly correlated with absorbance loss in the spectra and in the characteristic region for lactone in the spectra for 193 nm PR. Changes observed for exposure using the glass filter are significantly smaller than for exposure using the filter. 248 nm PR shows high structural stability and only minute thickness changes.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Thermal behavior of (a) 193 nm PR and (b) 248 nm PR after 300 s radiation exposure using the glass and filter. The temperature plots are labeled with starting temperatures for thermal decomposition also indicated with solid, dashed, and dotted lines for the unprocessed material, and radiation exposures using the glass and filter, respectively.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) (a) SEM images after 300 s radiation exposure of 193 nm PR trench patterns together with changes in (b) CD and (c) LER.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Wavelength range dependence of calculated atomic O/C ratios (bar) and oxygen content (bar inset) based on XPS surface characterization for Ar and . The O/C atomic ratios for the PR surface are estimated by integrated area ratios of the and spectra applying characteristic sensitivity factors. The oxygen content presented gives the relative composition of the PR surface as estimated by deconvolution of the spectra for individual bond contributions.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Wavelength range dependence of , , and and absorbance loss based on integrated area analysis of FTIR measurements of (a) Ar and (b) . Detailed observation of radiation-induced absorbance loss in the bond region of 193 nm PR exposed to (c) Ar and (d) for three characteristic regions accounting for ester, attached lactone, and free lactone. The detached lactone effectively removed from the film, i.e., the difference of free lactone and attached lactone loss, is presented as lactone.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Correlation of film thickness reduction as estimated by ellipsometric measurements and bulk material modifications of 193 nm PR after 300 s radiation exposure to various wavelengths ranges in Ar and discharges observed as absorbance loss by FTIR. Thickness reduction is directly related to absorbance loss in the spectra and in the characteristic region for lactone in the spectra.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Summary of experimental approach: cutoff wavelength of used filter materials and characteristic emission wavelengths of Ar and FC species in the VUV spectral range.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Summary of photon radiation-induced material modifications.

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/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/5/10.1116/1.3484249
2010-09-07
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Photoresist modifications by plasma vacuum ultraviolet radiation: The role of polymer structure and plasma chemistry
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/5/10.1116/1.3484249
10.1116/1.3484249
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