1887
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Holographic realization of hexagonal two dimensional photonic crystal structures with elliptical geometry
Rent:
Rent this article for
USD
10.1116/1.3491185
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/5/10.1116/1.3491185
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/5/10.1116/1.3491185

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of process procedures for realizing hexagonal 2D photonic crystals by means of two-beam interference principle with double-exposure steps.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Light intensity distribution under double-exposure of two-beam interference. (b) Inhibitor concentration in the exposed photoresist during the photosensitization process. (c) Dissolution rate of the exposed photoresist in a developer. (d) Resultant patterns after development. Two-dimensional periodic patterns with a hexagonal lattice of elliptical pillars can be realized.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Evolution of the calculated profiles with the normalized exposure energy (the numbers in the figure) for positive photoresist films double exposed to an interference pattern. By carefully controlling the total exposure doses, two-dimensional periodic holes or pillars can be realized by using a positive photoresist. Development time in this figure is set to 8 s (N: nonexposed region, S: single-exposed region, and D: double-exposed region).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Calculated profiles under different exposure energies. (Hollow-square and solid-circle symbols show the diameters of holes and pillars, respectively, while hollow-circle and solid-diamond symbols show the ellipticity of holes and pillars, respectively.)

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Photonic bandgap maps of the calculated profiles under different exposure energy. (Solid-diamond and hollow-cross symbols show the TM- and TE-mode gaps, respectively.)

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Schematic diagram of our laser holography system

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Reflectivity variation under different thickness of AR coating layer with an incident wavelength of 325 nm. The structure of the test sample is shown in the inset of the figure. (Solid and dot curves are simulation results while square symbols are experimental data. (b) 200 nm thick PhC templates using an 80 nm thick AR coating layer. Sidewall distortion on the resultant patterns caused from back-reflection can be clearly seen.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) (a) SEM pictures of fabricated two-dimensional hexagonal pillars. 370 nm thick PhC templates with a high aspect ratio and vertical sidewalls are realized using a 160 nm thick AR coating layer. (b) Photographs of the resultant samples under tilted angles of illumination. Bright and uniform diffracted light throughout the sample proves a good quality of the resultant patterns. The samples are highly uniform in an area of and present good reproducibility.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Experimental profiles under different exposure energy. Eight uniformly hexagonal photonic crystal samples are fabricated with a lattice constant of 420 nm. SEM pictures of the corresponding structures are shown around the analytical plot which shows the diameter and ellipticity of the resultant pattern with the exposure energy. (Hollow-square and solid-circle symbols show the diameters of holes and pillars, respectively, while hollow-circle and solid-diamond symbols show the ellipticity of holes and pillars, respectively.)

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Experimental profiles under different development time. Four 200 nm thick hexagonal photonic crystal samples are fabricated with a lattice constant of 420 nm. SEM pictures of the corresponding structures are shown above the analytical plot which shows the diameter and ellipticity of the resultant pattern with the development time. (Solid-circle symbol shows the diameter of pillars while solid-diamond symbol shows the ellipticity of the pillars.)

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Sequence of the experimental steps for transferring PhC patterns into silicon substrate by means of lift-off process and etching technique.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

SEM pictures of the resultant patterns after (a) Cr evaporation (procedure 2 of Fig. 11), (b) lift-off using a blue-tape (procedure 3 of Fig. 11), and (c) dry etching into silicon (procedure 6 of Fig. 11)

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Cross-sectional and tilted SEM views of vertical silicon nanopillars with an aspect ratio of 10 using a single-step deep reactive ion etching and controlled mixture of gases.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Parameters for simulation of profiles of holographic photonic crystals.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/5/10.1116/1.3491185
2010-09-22
2014-04-18
Loading

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Holographic realization of hexagonal two dimensional photonic crystal structures with elliptical geometry
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/28/5/10.1116/1.3491185
10.1116/1.3491185
SEARCH_EXPAND_ITEM