Schematic diagram of the experimental procedure.
FE-SEM images for (a) top view of the surface and (b) cross-sectional view of with an etched tunnel structure formed by electrochemical etching in a HCl solution at with a constant current density of and anodized in and at after boiling for 5 min in de-ionized water with a constant current density of up to 550 V.
(Color online) FE-SEM images for film with an etched structure formed by electroless-plating at for 10 min and variables conditions of (a) 4.0, (c) 4.4, and (d) 4.8 after activating for 1 min at room temperature, and (b) a magnified image and EDS data of Ni particles in the tunnel of tunnels for 4.0.
FE-SEM images for Ni full-filled film with an etched structure [(a) and (b)] by using the first electroless-plating at 4.8 and for 10 min after activation and PEG solution bath, and [(c) and (d)] by using the second Ni electroless-plating layer at 6.0, for 30 min.
(Color online) Illustration of the mechanism of full-filling by including an intermediate PEG solution bath after activation and prior to Ni electroless-plating bath.
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