Seal and encapsulate cavities for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor microelectromechanical system thermoelectric power generators
(Color online) Schematic view of the proposed TPG with configuration of top and bottom cavities.
(Color online) Simulated temperature distribution for four designs: (a) with top and bottom vacuum cavities, ; (b) with top and bottom air cavities, ; (c) with only bottom vacuum cavity, ; and (d) with only bottom vacuum cavity, .
(Color online) Verification process flow for sealing a -deep bottom cavity with PECVD USG.
SEM images at different steps of the verification process for sealing the bottom vacuum cavity.
Comparison of cavity sealing methods with PECVD (a) USG and (b) reflowed PSG.
(Color online) Verification process flow for encapsulating a -high top cavity with PECVD USG.
SEM images at different steps of the verification process flow for encapsulating top vacuum cavity.
Shell made with PECVD nitride fails to survive in BOE.
(Color online) Whole fabrication process flow of the TPG and images at the different steps.
Cross-section view of the fabricated TPG with -high top cavity and -deep bottom cavity.
(Color online) Surface profile of the sealed cavity shows that the membrane is strong enough to withstand the vacuum force.
(Color online) Testing setup for temperature control and voltage measurement and the device with wire bonding for testing.
(Color online) Output power vs temperature difference under a matched electrical resistance load.
(Color online) Output power and voltage vs current at a temperature difference of .
Layer information of the fabricated TPG.
Characterization of thermoelectric properties for polysilicon at .
Comparison with CMOS-compatible TPGs in the literature.
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