In situ beam drift detection using a two-dimensional electron-beam position monitoring system for multiple-electron-beam–direct-write lithography
Design of BPMS sensor using a two-dimensional array of quadrant detectors.
(Color online) Resist profile generated by 1 keV simulation with various exposure doses and development times (a) Cross-section view. (b) Top view.
(Color online) Beam current intensity against wafer throughput and resist sensitivity.
Simulated normalized radial energy distributions on the silicon substrate under the conditions of electrons with 1 keV incident energy and 0 nm beam spot size.
Scattered electron trajectories to the detectors.
(Color online) Backscattering coefficients (Refs. 47–49) for silicon as a function of the primary energy.
(Color online) (a) Arrangement of the detector array. (b) Collection efficiency and nearby cross-coupling effect for various working distances when the primary beam emits electrons from the center hole.
(a) Electron beam deviated from the original beam axis and drift toward detector 1. (b) Simulation of the detectors signal variation as an electron beam departs the original beam axis from 0 to 100 nm.
Electron-beam drift ranges from to in steps of 10 nm. Comparisons of and using the SQD method with LS correction for (a) and (b) , and the LLS method for (c) and (d) .
(Color online) Electron-beam drift ranges from to in steps of 10 nm. Normalized coefficients of (a) and (b) using the LLS method with to .
(a) Total emission electrons vs estimation errors for various defined ranges of electron-beam drift. (b) If the estimated values of and from emission electrons were applied to emission electrons cases.
Statistical analysis of total emission electrons versus backscattered electrons on the detector.
Statistical analysis of estimated position errors generated from two different methods with to emission electrons.
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