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Functional semiconductor nanowires via vapor deposition
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10.1116/1.3641913
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/29/6/10.1116/1.3641913
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/29/6/10.1116/1.3641913

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic illustration of the growth of dimension-controlled NWs. (a) The size of catalysts for NW diameter control. (b) The growth time for NW length control. Reprinted with permission from M. S. Gudiksen, J. F. Wang, and C. M. Lieiber, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 4062 (2001).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Aligned ZnO nanorods grown on a sapphire substrate in a hexagonal pattern. Reprinted with permission from X. D. Wang, C. J. Summers, and Z. L. Wang, Nano Lett. 4, 423 (2004).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Au-AuSi phase diagram with the calculated liquidus line (dashed line) indicating a substantial reduction in the transition temperature. Reprinted with permission from B. J. Kim, J. Tersoff, C. Y. Wen, M. C. Reuter, E. A. Stach, and F. M. Ross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 155701 (2009).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a)-(c) TEM images showing the catalyst state in an Au-Ge system when the temperature is 335 °C, 255 °C, and 335 °C (after heating to 435 °C), respectively. (d) Thermal history of the catalyst. Reprinted with permission from S. Kodambaka, J. Tersoff, M. C. Reuter, and F. M. Ross, Science 316, 729 (2007).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Phase diagram of Au-Ge binary compounds. The dashed curve is the extension of the Au liquidus line below the eutectic point. Reprinted with permission from S. Kodambaka, J. Tersoff, M. C. Reuter, and F. M. Ross, Science 316, 729 (2007).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) TEM images showing the Si nucleus captured at different times. The scale bar is 10 nm. (b) Time dependent linear dimension r of the Si nuclei under the same nucleation conditions. R represents the initial catalyst radius. (c) Time dependent linear dimension of the Si nuclei under a precursor pressure lower than that in (b). (d) Plots of r3/R3 vs (P/R)(t − tn) for all of the nuclei analyzed at one temperature and four different pressures. Reprinted with permission from B. J. Kim, J. Tersoff, S. Kodambaka, M. C. Reuter, E. A. Stach, and F. M. Ross, Science 322, 1070 (2008).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a)-(c) TEM image sequence of Si NW growth at different elapsed times. Reprinted with permission from S. Hofmann, R. Sharma, C. T. Wirth, F. Cervantes-Sodi, C. Ducati, T. Kasama, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, J. Drucker, P. Bennett, and J. Robertson, Nature Mater. 7, 372 (2008).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) (a) TEM image of an Si NW with sawtooth facets. (b) Schematic of the Si NW facet configuration. (c) Defocused TEM image highlighting the sawtooth structure; p and h denote the sawtooth period and amplitude. The scale bar is 50 nm. (d)-(g) Schematic illustration of the sawtooth growth model. Reprinted with permission from F. M. Ross, J. Tersoff, and M. C. Reuter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 146104 (2005).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a)-(c) Series of TEM images captured (a) before, (b) immediately after, and (c) 14 s after the solidification of the catalyst. (d)-(i) Series of TEM images showing the formation of an Si-Ge-Si heterojunction in an Si NW. (d) Growth of Si NW with feeding of Si2H6. (e) Growth of the Ge segment with feeding of Ge2H6. (f) After 7 min of growth of the Ge layer. (g) After 8.5 min of Si growth. (H) After 14 min of Si growth. (i) After another minute of Ge growth. Reprinted with permission from C. Y. Wen, M. C. Reuter, J. Bruley, J. Tersoff, S. Kodambaka, E. A. Stach, and F. M. Ross, Science 326, 1247 (2009).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) (a)-(d) SEM images of Ge NWs catalyzed by different sized Au NPs. (e) Plot of v1/2 vs 1/d at different temperatures. Inset is a plot of the critical diameter determined from the interception as a function of temperature. (f) Plot of the growth velocity normalized by the kinetic coefficient b acquired from the data presented in (e). (g) Plot of the NW length vs the diameter for different precursor partial pressures. (h) Plot of v1/2 vs 1/d acquired from the data shown in (g). Inset is a plot of the critical diameter as a function of the precursor partial pressure. Reprinted with permission from S. A. Dayeh and S. T. Picraux, Nano Lett. 10, 4032 (2010).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) (a) Plot of dL/dt (length/time) vs d (diameter) for an ensemble of Si NWs grown at the same temperature and precursor partial pressure. (b) TEM image showing the different sizes of the Si NW samples. Reprinted with permission from S. Kodambaka, J. Tersoff, M. C. Reuter, and F. M. Ross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 096105 (2006).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Three suggested heteroepitaxial growth modes of NWs. (a) The SK mode, in which a defective film forms between the solid substrate and strain-free NWs. (b) The i-SK mode, in which a cone-shaped base forms beneath the NW. (c) The c-SK mode, in which dislocation-free NWs directly grow on the substrate surface without any intermediate structure. (d)-(f) Typical SEM images showing ZnO NWs grown on a GaN substrate via the SK, i-SK, and c-SK modes, respectively. (g) Critical length vs radius plot of dislocation free ZnO NWs. Triangles, circles, and stars represent experimental data measured from ZnO NWs grown on a GaN substrate via the SK, i-SK, and c-SK modes, respectively.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(a)-(c) TEM images of as-synthesized ZnO NBs growing along the [0001] direction. Reprinted with permission from Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, Science 291, 1947 (2001).

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) (a) ZnO nanohelix with its starting point and finishing end. (b) Low-magnification TEM image from the starting point of a nanohelix. (c) Transition region from a single crystalline structure to a superlattice structure acquired from (b). The top inset shows the selective area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of the superlattice segment, and the bottom inset shows the ZnO (0001) diffraction pattern from a regular single crystal area. (d) High resolution TEM demonstrates a clear cutting line from the point at which the structural transformation occurs across the entire width of the NB. Mismatch edge dislocations are also identified. (g) Schematic sketches illustrating the top, cross section, and 3D structure of a nanohelix. Reprinted with permission from P. X. Gao, Y. Ding, W. J. Mai, W. L. Hughes, C. S. Lao, and Z. L. Wang, Science 309, 1700 (2005).

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) Schematic illustration of (a) the layer-by-layer crystal growth model, (b) a lattice step created by a screw dislocation, (c) the screw-dislocation-driven growth model, and (d) the screw-dislocation-driven growth of a NW trunk with VLS type NW branches. (e) Theoretical growth rates of ZnO NWs as a function of supersaturation for a dislocation mechanism (solid line) and a layer-by-layer mechanism (dashed line), with experimental rates indicated by solid squares. Reprinted with permission from S. A. Morin, M. J. Bierman, J. Tong, and S. Jin, Science 328, 476 (2010); S. Jin, M. J. Bierman, and S. A. Morin, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 1472 (2010).

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(Color online) Understanding the TiO2 NR growth mechanism. (a) Crystal structure model of a 2 × 2 × 2 supercell of anatase TiO2, in which the (001), (011), and (100) planes are highlighted by horizontal, tilted, and vertical slabs, respectively. (b) Ball-and-stick model of the {001}, {011}, and {100} cleavage surfaces centered with a randomly selected Ti atom (white). Green (light) and purple (dark) Ti atoms represent the near and far neighbors, respectively, relative to the center Ti atom. (c) Schematic illustration of one ideal pulsed CVD growth cycle. The left-hand side shows the (001) and (100) planes after a TiCl4 pulse. The right-hand side shows the situation after a subsequent water pulse. The (100) surface becomes inert due to the near-neighbor self-combination, whereas the (001) surface remains active with the Cl replaced by -OH groups.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

(a) ZnO NW-nanofin structures on a concave surface demonstrating the dynamic drifting path of Zn clusters. (b) A partially parallel aligned ZnO nanofin array.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

(Color online) SEM images of ZnO nanoflower structures. (a) Overview of dense ZnO nanoflowers grown on alumina substrates. (b) A cluster of nanoflowers in which a tapering structure of the nanoflower stems and a spherical growth front of the corollas can be observed. (c) SEM image of a representative nanoflower corolla showing that it is constructed by the tiny petals.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

HRTEM images of the petal tips that are found to be spherical. The growth directions of the petals are not parallel to the [0001] direction. The spherical shape of the petal tips and their random growth orientations are typical observations.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

(Color online) Oscillatory mass transport in the Al catalyzed growth of sapphire NWs. (a)-(f) HRTEM images captured from a real-time movie. Local crystal growth of a rim at the triple-junction region via mass diffusion from the liquid-vapor interface to the () facets is shown in (a)-(c). Dissolution of the () facet supplying oxygen to the (0001) facet growth is shown in (d)-(f). Reprinted with permission from S. H. Oh, M. F. Chisholm, Y. Kauffmann, W. D. Kaplan, W. D. Luo, M. Ruhle, and C. Scheu, Science 330, 489 (2010).

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

Plots of oxidation (dashed line) and condensation (solid line) rates of Zn vs the substrate temperature. The five distinct deposition regions are marked with dashed-dotted lines and illustrated by typical morphology images (inset). Region I: ZnO nanowire is the dominant morphology. Region II: ZnO nanocombs are dominant. Region III: ZnO nanoflowers are dominant. Region IV: Zn-ZnO core-shell structure is dominant. Region V: metallic Zn deposition is dominant.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

(Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of a multiquantum-well NW structure. (b) Dark-field cross-sectional TEM image of a GaN core and multiquantum-well shell structure. The scale bar is 10 nm. Inset: the corresponding SAED pattern. Reprinted with permission from F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H. G. Park, Y. J. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature Mater. 7, 701 (2008).

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

(Color online) Synthesis of NW superlattices. (a) Metal-catalyzed VLS growth of NWs. (b) Feeding of a second precursor for new segment growth. (c) Repetition of the steps in (a) and (b) for the formation of a superlattice within a single NW. Reprinted with permission from M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 415, 617 (2002).

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

(Color online) Modulated zigzag Si NWs synthesized with iterative control over the nucleation and growth of the NW. The scale bar is 2 μm. Reprinted with permission from B. Z. Tian, P. Xie, T. J. Kempa, D. C. Bell, and C. M. Lieber, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 824 (2009).

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

(a) ZnO NW branches catalyzed by Sn droplets. (b) Self-catalyzed 3D PbSe NW network. Reprinted with permission from M. Fardy, A. I. Hochbaum, J. Goldberger, M. M. Zhang, and P. D. Yang, Adv. Mater. 19, 3047 (2007); P. X. Gao and Z. L. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2883 (2004).

Image of FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

(a) GaP nanotree arrays. (b) ZnO NWs grown on polymer pillars. Reprinted with permission from K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Martensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, and L. Samuelson, Nature Mater. 3, 380 (2004); H. Ko, Z. X. Zhang, K. Takei, and A. Javey, Nanotechnology 21, 295305 (2010).

Image of FIG. 27.
FIG. 27.

(Color online) (a) Schematic diagram and (b) experimental demonstration of TiO2 NRs grown inside highly confined nanochannels. (c) Schematic diagram and (d) experimental demonstration of TiO2 NRs grown inside an Si NW forest.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Number of far-neighbor or near-neighbor Ti atoms with respect to a randomly selected center Ti atom.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Summary of the nucleation and growth characteristics of NWs formed via vapor deposition with and without the presence of foreign metal catalysts.

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2011-09-27
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Functional semiconductor nanowires via vapor deposition
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/29/6/10.1116/1.3641913
10.1116/1.3641913
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