New approach for measuring protrusive forces in cells
(Color online) Force sensor device in silicone elastomer (PDMS). Top view in which pillar diameter d = 1 μm and distance between edge of pad and pillar (d1, d2) = 3 and 2 μm, respectively. Protrusive forces were measured on the block of pillars where the cell first makes contact, i.e., the pillars to the right of the dashed line.
(Color online) Schematic diagram illustrating the fabrication of the force sensor in PDMS with pillars higher than nearby pads.
Cross-sectioned scanning electron microscope image of force sensor in the silicon mold after fabrication. The holes are ∼150 nm deeper than nearby pads. Stage tilt: 90°. Scale bar = 1 μm.
(Color online) Scanning electron micrograph of cell on top of the device. The cell edge on the pillars has been outlined. Samples were critical point dried. The debris seen in this image is due to the critical point drying process. Scale bar = 25 μm.
(Color online) Representative traces of protrusive force exerted by a cell on pillars. The x-axis denotes the time in minutes, and the y-axis is the protrusive force in nano-Newtons (nN).
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