Optimization of block copolymer self-assembly through graphoepitaxy: A defectivity study
(Color online) Schematic view of samples: HSQ e-beam guiding patterns of height, h 0, line CD, L, and space CD, S (gray), and the block copolymers of height, h > h 0 (red).
(Color online) (a) Initial image (by CD SEM); (b) the image after defect identification; no defect (blue), a defect based on mean distance analysis (red), and a defect based on the number-of-neighbors defect analysis (yellow); (c) a contact considered as a good candidate; (d) a contact found as a defect using the number-of-neighbors criteria; and (e) a contact identified as a defect using the distance criteria.
CD-SEM images and associated FFT for self-assembly (a) without and (b)–(d) with graphoepitaxy approach. Concerning the graphoepitaxy approach, the three samples correspond to different polymer thickness less than, equal to and greater than the resist pattern height, respectively.
(Color online) (a) CD-SEM image and (b) the image after Delaunay triangulation for a sample generated by graphoepitaxy, with polymer film thickness greater than the pattern height.
(Color online) Commensurability definition. L—linewidth, S—space width, L 0 —polymer intrinsic period, a 0—distance between two neighbors contact arrays.
(Color online) Evolution of the number of defects with pitch at a constant L. Marks B and C correspond to minima of the number of defects and mark A to a maximum of the number of defects.
(Color online) Associated SEM images corresponding to (a) the maximum number of defects (mark A on Fig. 6); and (b) and (c) the minimum number of defects (marks B and C on Fig. 6). For B , seven arrays of contact are comprised in-between two consecutive resist lines and, for C , eight such arrays.
(Color online) Number of defects vs N (bottom abscissa axis) and vs pitch (top abscissa axis) for L = 64 nm (in pink squares) and L = 70 nm (in green triangles). The minimum of defects is marked with a black arrow.
(Color online) CD-SEM image associated with the pattern L = 70 nm and S = 186 nm. Commensurability is with respect to trench, S, and not with respect to the linewidth, L. There are six arrays of contact inside the trench and the number of contact arrays oscillates between two and three on the top of the mesa.
(Color online) Minimum number of defects vs n = L/a 0 (bottom abscissa axis) and vs L (top abscissa axis). The minimum number of defects corresponds to n integer (n = 2).
(Color online) (a) CD-SEM image and (b) the associated Voronoi analysis illustrating the zero-defects unidirectional network generated with the pattern when L = 62 nm and S = 186 nm.
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