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Determination of crystal orientation of silicon via shape-controlled vapor-solid growth of copper nanoparticles
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) (a) Setup for vapor-solid growth of copper nanoparticles on a crystalline substrate. Copper is placed in the proximity of the substrate, and both are heated under ambient conditions. (b) A schematic of the rounded copper source in contact with the substrate. This setup is used to determine the effective distance for nanoparticle formation.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Nanoparticles generated on three different crystal orientations. The reaction temperature was set at 900 °C with a ramping time of 10 min, followed by an isothermal heating time of 5 min, and natural cooling. (a) A macroscopic view of the nanoparticles. The density is about 2.9 × 106/cm2. The scale bar is 10 μm. (b) and (c) are magnified views of nanoparticles on (100) and (111) substrates, respectively. The scale bar is 1 μm. Though the size and position of the particles are random, all particles within the substrate show the same shape and rotation. (d), (e), and (f) are particles on (100), (111), and amorphous substrates, respectively. The scale bar is 250 nm. While equilateral square and triangle shapes are formed on (100) and (111) plane substrates, a random shape is seen on the amorphous substrate.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) Primitive unit cell and the shapes on (100) and (111) plane. (b) The truncated shapes bounded by {100}, {110}, and {111} facets.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the as-formed particled and (b) x-ray diffraction pattern of the shape-controlled Cu particles. The particles were transferred to a glass substrate. The strong peaks are assigned to (111), (200), and (220), respectively, which correspond to the diffraction pattern of face-centered cubic symmetry copper.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Size distribution of the truncated cubes for two different reaction times: 5 min (empty bar) and 60 min (filled bar). The frequency was counted in a 400 μm2 window. The line represents the Weibull distribution fitting to the histogram. The density and size distributions are similar for both reaction times, which is attributed to the fact that the copper source is fully oxidized and thus the supply of copper ions is limited by the diffusion-limited reaction.


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Scitation: Determination of crystal orientation of silicon via shape-controlled vapor-solid growth of copper nanoparticles