Schematic of Ti hardmask erosion stages: (a) before processing, (b) during steady-state hardmask erosion, and (c) during etching of the SiO2 layer underneath the Ti film.
(Color online) Real-time ellipsometric measurements of Ti erosion in a 20%CF4/Ar plasma (black circles) superimposed on multilayer optical models. The models describe the initial removal of a TiO2 layer (dashed blue lines) from the Ti surface, followed by steady state erosion of Ti (solid red line, open triangles), and the erosion of the SiO2 film (solid black line, open squares). Also shown is the influence of FC films on top of the Ti surface during steady state erosion (dotted red lines).
(Color online) High resolution Ti 2p XPS spectra of Ti (a) before processing, (b) during steady state hardmask erosion, and (c) during erosion of the SiO2 layer in a 20%CF4/Ar plasma. Peak assignments for Ti, Ti-oxides, and Ti-fluorides are indicated at the top of the spectra.
(Color online) Plasma parameter dependence of Ti and OSG etch rates on VSB together with corresponding etch selectivities for (a) CF4-based and (b) C4F8-based plasma discharges.
(Color online) Plasma parameter dependence of Ti and OSG etch rates on (a) pressure and (b) %CF4 in the CF4/Ar discharge together with corresponding ESs.
High resolution Ti 2p, N 1s, F 1s, C 1s, and O 1s x ray photoelectron spectra (from left to right) of Ti surfaces (a) after processing in the C4F8 anchor condition and after processing in the anchor condition with (b) 5% and (c) 10% O2 and (d) 10% and (e) 20% N2 addition. Peak assignments are indicated at the top of the spectra (Refs. 11, 18, and 43–47).
(Color online) Plasma parameter dependence of Ti and OSG etch rates on (a) O2 and (b) N2 addition in the C4F8/Ar discharge together with corresponding ESs.
(Color online) Correlation of FC film thickness with etch rate (ER), etch yield, and energy etch yield for O2 and N2 addition to the C4F8/Ar discharge and various VSB in the CF4/Ar discharge.
(Color online) Correlation of ER and ES for Ti erosion for all plasma parameters investigated in the CF4/Ar and C4F8/Ar discharges.
XPS binding energy assignments and spin-orbit splitting (SOS) for Ti 2p spectra.
Ti surface composition for the CF4 and C4F8 anchor condition together with composition of the C 1s and F 1s elemental spectra.
Surface composition and FC layer thickness of Ti films for 20%C4F8/Ar and 5 and 10 % O2 addition and 10 and 20 % N2 addition.
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