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Analysis of the efficiency with which geometrically asymmetric metal–vacuum–metal junctions can be used for the rectification of infrared and optical radiations
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10.1116/1.3698600
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/30/3/10.1116/1.3698600
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/30/3/10.1116/1.3698600
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Static part (a) and oscillating part (b) of the potential energy that is used for the time-dependent transfer-matrix simulations. The gap spacing D is 2 nm. The radius of the hemispherical protrusion is 1 nm. The junction is subject to an electric potential , where V stat = 0 V and V osc = 0.1 V.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Static I stat(V stat) data achieved for a gap spacing D of 2 nm and a work function W of 4.5 eV (solid line) and 1.5 eV (dashed line). I stat is positive for V stat > 0 V and negative for V stat < 0 V. The temperature T is 300 K.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Mean diode current provided by the classical expression (solid line), the finite-difference expression (dashed line), the Tien-Gordon expression (dotted-dashed line) and the time-dependent transfer-matrix technique (triangles). The representation also includes the results achieved using the transfer-matrix technique of Ref. 2 (crosses). The gap spacing D is 2 nm. The static voltage V stat is 0 V. The amplitude V osc of the oscillating voltage is 0.1 V. The work function W is 4.5 eV. The temperature T is 300 K.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Mean energy gained per unit of time by the electrons that cross the junction, as provided by the classical expression (solid line), the finite-difference expression (dashed line), the Tien-Gordon expression (dotted-dashed line), and the time-dependent transfer-matrix technique (triangles). The representation also includes the results achieved using the transfer-matrix technique of Ref. 2 (crosses) as well as the result achieved from a classical integration of the transfer-matrix currents (squares). The gap spacing D is 2 nm. The static voltage V stat is 0 V. The amplitude V osc of the oscillating voltage is 0.1 V. The work function W is 4.5 eV. The temperature T is 300 K.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Quantum efficiency obtained when calculating and by the classical expressions and (solid line), the finite-difference expressions and (dashed line), the Tien-Gordon expressions and (dotted-dashed line), and the time-dependent transfer-matrix technique (triangles). The gap spacing D is 2 nm. The static voltage V stat is 0 V. The amplitude V osc of the oscillating voltage is 0.1 V. The work function W is 4.5 eV. The temperature T is 300 K.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Energy conversion efficiency obtained when calculating by the classical expression (solid line), the finite-difference expression (dashed line), the Tien-Gordon expression (dotted-dashed line), and the time-dependent transfer-matrix technique (triangles). The gap spacing D is 2 nm. The static voltage V stat is 0 V. The amplitude V osc of the oscillating voltage is 0.1 V. The work function W is 4.5 eV. The temperature T is 300 K. The vertical line indicates the height of the static part of the potential barrier for electrons at the Fermi level.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Energy conversion efficiency obtained when calculating by the classical expression (solid line), the finite-difference expression (dashed line), the Tien-Gordon expression (dotted-dashed line), and the time-dependent transfer-matrix technique (triangles). The gap spacing D is 2 nm. The static voltage V stat is 0 V. The amplitude V osc of the oscillating voltage is 1 V. The work function W is 4.5 eV. The temperature T is 300 K. The vertical line indicates the height of the static part of the potential barrier for electrons at the Fermi level.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Energy conversion efficiency obtained when calculating by the classical expression (solid line), the finite-difference expression (dashed line), the Tien-Gordon expression (dotted-dashed line), and the time-dependent transfer-matrix technique (triangles). The gap spacing D is 2 nm. The static voltage V stat is 0 V. The amplitude V osc of the oscillating voltage is 0.1 V (a) and 1 V (b). The work function W is 1.5 eV. The temperature T is 300 K. The vertical lines indicate the height of the static part of the potential barrier for electrons at the Fermi level.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Static I stat(V stat) data achieved for a gap spacing D of 1.5 nm and a work function W of 4.5 eV (solid line) and 1.5 eV (dashed line). I stat is positive for V stat > 0 V and negative for V stat < 0 V. The temperature T is 300 K.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Energy conversion efficiency obtained when calculating by the classical expression (solid line), the finite-difference expression (dashed line), the Tien-Gordon expression (dotted-dashed line), and the time-dependent transfer-matrix technique (triangles). The gap spacing D is 1.5 nm. The static voltage V stat is 0 V. The amplitude V osc of the oscillating voltage is 1 V. The work function W is 4.5 eV (a) and 1.5 eV (b). The temperature T is 300 K. The vertical line indicates the height of the static part of the potential barrier for electrons at the Fermi level.

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/content/avs/journal/jvstb/30/3/10.1116/1.3698600
2012-04-16
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Analysis of the efficiency with which geometrically asymmetric metal–vacuum–metal junctions can be used for the rectification of infrared and optical radiations
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/30/3/10.1116/1.3698600
10.1116/1.3698600
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