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Historical development and future trends of vacuum electronics
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Vacuum electron tube; schematic view.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Annual production rate of incandescent lamps and electron tubes in the U.S. according to Redhead (Ref. 15). Reprinted with permission from J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23, 1252 (2005). Copyright 2005, AVS.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Interior and outside view with rim of the EF50 RF pentode tube manufactured by Philips (courtesy R. Dekker, Ref. 21).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Historical trends/technological waves in vacuum electronics and neighboring fields.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Cutaway model of a Philips color picture tube. DY means deflection yoke for magnetic deflection of the electron beams.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) Philips 0.65 W oxide cathode unit. (b) Philips CRT electron gun with red, green, and blue cathodes.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) CRT world market vs time: The left vertical scale refers to total CRT sales per year worldwide (round dots) in units of $100 million. On the right vertical scale, the number of tubes is given in million pieces: the solid diamonds are the total number of CRTs sold per year including CMTs, the open diamonds are the TVT only.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Progression of device power density P av ∗ f2 for major device types according to Granatstein et al. (Refs. 2 and 4). Reprinted with permission from IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. 50, 835 (2002). Copyright ©2002, IEEE.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Total sales per year, worldwide (in billions of US$) vs time for four important vacuum tube types, namely CRTs, microwave tubes, x-ray tubes, and lamps (fluorescent and incandescent). Data up to 1985 (Ref. 9) have been updated (Refs. 30 and 31).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Ultimate vacuum achieved vs time (Refs. 93, 33, and 34).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Historical development of thermionic cathode emission capabilities (Refs. 32 and 40). The plot shows, on the vertical axis, the maximum current density achieved (condition is an operational lifetime >4000 h at saturated emission-current density j 0) vs time.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Improvement of dc loadability of oxide cathodes vs time (Refs. 32 and 92)

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Schematic view of a development curve: Typically the time is in a linear scale and the feature in a logarithmic scale. It is not a continuous, but a limiting mathematical curve. The achievement of improved performance is dependent on the effort, the technological starting level, and the physical limitations. The skills built up for the preceding point are a prerequisite for the next one.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Plot of field emission (cold emission) current density vs emitter area (including passive parts) based on literature data for CNTs (Refs. 53–55), W tips (Ref. 56), pn emitters (Ref. 44), and Spindt arrays (Refs. 45–52). Lines of equal current are shown for 1 mA and 100 mA.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Scanning electron micrograph of Spindt cathode: representative cross section with Mo microtips. The emission strongly depends on tip height, radius of curvature, and position in the gate opening (courtesy of C. A. Spindt et al., Ref. 51). Reprinted with permission from J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 433 (2003). Copyright 2003, American Vacuum Society.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

SEM image of sandwich-grown CNT array (courtesy of P. K. Bachmann, Philips, Ref. 53).

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

(Color online) Schematic view of 170 GHz gyrotron of 2.2 MW power of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (courtesy of M. Thumm, Ref.29). Reprinted with permission from IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 1141 (2010). Copyright © 2010, IEEE.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

(Color online) Design of a thermionic energy converter using scandate cathodes according to Tanner et al. from Kings College, London (courtesy of P. Tanner, Ref. 61).

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

(Color online) Moore’s Law (Refs. 43 and 72–77): the number of transistors per chip are shown for Intel microprocessors (starting in 1971) and for DRAM memories vs time. The data before 1970 are from Ref. 43.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

(Color online) DRAM minimum feature size vs year, based on Gelsinger (Ref. 74) and Intel (Ref. 77).

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

(Color online) Power consumption in Watt from successive generations of Intel processors vs time according to Borsuk et al. (Ref. 72), and data from Intel.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

TEM micrograph of CNT sandwich interconnects (courtesy of P.K.Bachmann, Philips, Ref. 86). The scale at the lower left side is 10 nm.

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

(Color online) Fujitsu nanoscale carbon composite (courtesy of I. Kawai, Fujitsu Laboratories, Ref. 87).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Historical development and future trends of vacuum electronics