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Using electron spectroscopy to verify the model of Ga implanted during focused ion beam circuit editing
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10.1116/1.4759249
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/30/6/10.1116/1.4759249
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/30/6/10.1116/1.4759249

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Simulated Ga implanting depth profiles from Eq. (3) for 50 keV Ga+ ions striking a Si target. The range, straggle, and implanting yield for this simulation are 49 nm, 18 nm, and 0.74, respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Measured ESCA depth profiles for 1.25 × 1016 cm−2 of Ga implanted into thermal silicon oxide (top), TEOS oxide (middle), and elemental silicon (bottom). The Ga concentration has been multiplied by a factor of 10 for presentation.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Measured ESCA depth profiles for 1.25 × 1016 cm−2 of Ga implanted into silicon nitride (top), oxynitride (middle), and USG (bottom). The Ga concentration has been multiplied by a factor of 10 for presentation.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Measured Ga implanting depth profiles from ESCA for 50 keV Ga+ ions striking a Si target for several Ga doses, directly comparable to the modeled data of Fig. 1.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Trench depth measurements as a function of Ga+ dose for silicon, TEOS oxide, and thermal oxide. The data do not show evidence for a variation in milling rate with applied Ga dose. Swelling known to occur at doses below 10−16 cm−2 is outside the range and resolution of the data.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Emission from the Ga 2p 3/2 energy level for low dose Ga implantation for the sequence silicon, nitride, oxynitride, and oxide compared to a spectrum from oxidized metallic Ga. These spectra were taken during a depth profile. The different spectra represent emission from different depths during the depth profile. The binding energy of the Ga 2p 3/2 emission increases with increasing state of oxidation.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Emission from the Ga 2p 3/2 energy level for Ga implanted into Si as a function of dose. The top spectrum is from metallic Ga. The binding energy of the Ga 2p 3/2 emission does not show a change in Ga chemistry between the low dose and high dose regimes. The metallic Ga sample was sputtered to remove surface hydrocarbons and oxygen.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Emission from the Ga 2p 3/2 energy level for Ga implanted into thermal SiO2 as a function of dose. The top spectrum is from metallic Ga with native surface oxide. The binding energy of the Ga 2p 3/2 emission shows oxidized chemistry at low dose and metallic chemistry at high dose. The metallic Ga sample was sputtered to remove surface hydrocarbons but retain surface oxygen.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Emission of the Ga 2p 3/2 energy level for Ga implanted into thermal SiO2 at intermediate dose compared to Ga implanted into Si (bottom), fit to two Gaussian peaks (middle), and compared to metallic Ga with the native surface oxide (top). The metallic Ga sample was sputtered to remove surface hydrocarbons but retain surface oxygen.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Depth profile of Ga implanted into the 100 nm thermal SiO2 at a dose of 0.94 × 1017 cm−2. The Ga 2p 3/2 emission used to monitor the Ga concentration was factored with TFA into two peaks. Basis spectra for the two peaks were metallic Ga0 and oxidized Ga3+. The surface advanced (milled) to a depth of 32 nm during the dose. Metallic Ga valence (Ga0) extends to a 60 nm, whereas oxidized Ga valence (Ga3+) extends from 60 to 100 nm. The surface (at 32 nm after the Ga dose) Ga signal is oxidized due to transport in air to the ESCA system.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Target sputter rates and implanting parameters extracted from depth profiles after Ga+ doses of 1.25 × 1016 cm−2. The columns are the target material, the atomic density Nt , the sputtering yield St , the range Rp , the straggle ΔRp , the low-dose implanting yield α, and the maximum Ga concentration assuming unity implanting yield, (NtSt )−1.

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/content/avs/journal/jvstb/30/6/10.1116/1.4759249
2012-10-16
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Using electron spectroscopy to verify the model of Ga implanted during focused ion beam circuit editing
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/30/6/10.1116/1.4759249
10.1116/1.4759249
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